Horace Martin Alexander

15 Feb 1812 - 8 Sep 1881

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Horace Martin Alexander

15 Feb 1812 - 8 Sep 1881
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF HORACE MARTIN ALEXANDER Containing also a short sketch of Nancy, his wife. Written and compiled in 1927 by his granddaughter, Lucille Walker. My Grandfather, Horace Martin Alexander was born near Cavesville, on a tobacco plantation, in Orange County, Virginia, Febr
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Life Information

Horace Martin Alexander

Born:
Died:

Springville City Cemetery

200 West 400 South
Springville, Utah, Utah
United States
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SouthPawPhilly

July 14, 2011
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July 14, 2011

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Horace Martin Alexander’s Obituary

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 7 months ago Updated: 7 months ago

The Territorial Enquirer Saturday, September 24, 1881 Volume IV, Number 383 DIED. At Provo, Sept.19th, 1881, of dropsy, Horace M. Alexander, aged 69 years, 7 months and 4 days. Deceased embraced the Gospel in 1834 at Fat West, Missouri, and immigrated to Utah in 1848; was ordained to the High Priesthood in 1861; and served in the Mormon Battalion. He was buried in Springville on day succeeding his death, the funeral being attended by a large circle of relatives and friends. He was a man widely and favorably known throughout the Territory.

Life sketch of Horace Martin Alexander

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 7 months ago Updated: 7 months ago

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF HORACE MARTIN ALEXANDER Containing also a short sketch of Nancy, his wife. Written and compiled in 1927 by his granddaughter, Lucille Walker. My Grandfather, Horace Martin Alexander was born near Cavesville, on a tobacco plantation, in Orange County, Virginia, February 15, 1812. His parents, James and Frances Ehart Alexander, had eight children, of whom Horace was the youngest. His brothers and sisters were: Willis, Adam, Willis 2nd, Fannie, Maria, James and Thorton. When Horace was still quite young, the family moved to another Plantation over in Kentucky, about two and one-half miles from Hillsboro, in Fleming county. In this home of luxury and ease the lad grew to young manhood. He had not been taught to work. A southern gentleman does not do that, only slaves and “white trash” need to work. It to interesting to note here that he was not fitted, either by nature or by training, for the life of a pioneer. When he was about nineteen years old, he left his home and went out to seek his fortune elsewhere, to the chagrin of his parents. It is thought that an unfortunate love affair was the cause of his leaving. We next hear of him in Ohio, going with some other boys to torment the Mormons, who were holding a meeting there. Grandfather listened to the words of the Elders. After that he attended more of their services. Here he became acquainted with a devout Mormon girl, Nancy Reader Walker. Through her influence he was converted. On September 14th, 1834 he and Nancy were married. They were with the saints in their migration from Ohio to Missouri. On September 1st, 1836 when their first child, Frances Evelyn was born, they were living on a farm near Liberty in Clay County, Missouri. When, after a series of persecutions in Clay and Jackson County, the saints realized that they could expect no protection from the State, they petitioned the legislature to assign them a place where they might live. It was on this territory assigned them that the city of Far West was built. Here in 1837 and 1838 grandfather kept a store according to a day book he kept at this time. Some of the charge accounts of this little book are interesting: Saleratus 2 lbs. 30¢, Candles 25¢, Calico 50¢, flour 24 lbs. $1.25, Molasses 50¢. These items were paid for by pork. Grandfather used to tell how friendly he and Joseph Smith were at this time. The Prophet, an imposing figure on his big white horse, would ride right into Grandfather's store, and the horse would paw for what it wanted. The Saints soon became so numerous and so prosperous that the people of Missouri and even Governor Boggs feared that they would soon own Missouri (the Mormons were so united and thrifty, there was cause for alarm). The state militia supposedly called to quell the mobs, actually joined the mobs in driving the Mormons from Missouri, The Saints had to pledge their property to defray the cost of the war. They had to leave the state before spring, 1839. The expulsion began in February and by the middle of April no Mormons were left In Missouri. Whither should they go? Homeless, almost destitute, they camped in tents and wagons on the banks of the frozen Missouri River. Some had been forced to flee without sufficient clothing and bedding to keep them warm. Grandfather, who had achieved property in Far West, had to leave everything behind, even his big trunk. His wife was in a delicate condition. He must find a home for her and their two and one-half year old daughter. How he ever succeeded in traveling way down the river to Alton in lower Illinois (Madison County) is not known. But here at Alton, in March, 1839, his day book records, a baby girl, Nancy, was born to them. What an experience for these two young parents. The family lived here about two years. On March 5, 1841, another daughter was born (our Grandmother) Sarah Malinda. Most of the Saints on leaving Far West had gone up the Mississippi River to Quincy, Illinois, where they were treated with sympathy. They purchased a city of about twenty houses, called Commerce. Here they built the City of Nauvoo in a little over a year, a city of 15,000 people, 800 houses of stone, frame and logs. What an achievement for a years work! What other people could have done such a thing? Here in 1841 they began to build their temple. Joseph Smith, in a revelation, called all the Saints to bring their gold, etc, and come to Zion to help build the Temple. In answer to this call grandfather left Alton and joined the Saints at Nauvoo. In April 1841, we find he and his wife and their three children living at the home of a brother Ables. In Alton or earlier he seems to have learned carpentry for his day book records that he worked on the Temple beginning in March, 1842. Once more he prospered. The little family was very happy. On October 15, 1843, their fourth child Dionitia was born. Soon after this, began the persecution which ended in the killing of the Prophet and in the expulsion of the Mormons from Illinois in the spring of 1846. Banoroft’s history gives the idea that Pres. Smith’s aspiring to be President of the United States and his beginning the Practice of Polygamy were probably the chief reasons for the expulsion, The Mormons were driven almost at the point of the bayonet. They were not given sufficient time to dispose of their home and lands, but had to trade them off for whatever they could get. Early in February they set forth, destination unknown, to find a place where they might be safe. Their first camp was on Sugar Creek in Iowa. Here there was much suffering. The autumn found practically all of the Saints camped at Winter Quarters and Council Bluffs. In the meantime war had been declared between the United States and Mexico. Brigham Young appealed to the government for work for his men, offering to help fight the U.S. battles. Accordingly, the Government called for 500 volunteers to be raised among the Saints. The Mormon men hated to leave their families to go off to war, but it meant that their monthly pay would help to buy the necessary outfits for conveying the Saints across the plains. Grandfather, along with nearly all the able bodied, husky men of the camps, enlisted in Company B. His wife and children were left in the care of the church. The Mormon Battalion began the greatest march of infantry ever known, July 19, 1846, from Council Bluffs. The Mormon soldiers didn’t buy an outfit of shoes and clothing with the $40.00 allotted them by the government for that purpose. Instead they sent it back to their suffering families. As a consequence many of them were almost naked before the 2,000 mile march was half over. Their path lay over an uncharted desert. In some places food was so scarce they had to kill worn out horses and mules to eat. At one time they marched a hundred miles without water. On the San Pedro River there was an encounter with a herd of buffalo. Grandfather barely escaped with his life. They reached San Diego January 29th 1847, and found the Stars and Stripes floating there. Back at Winter Quarters on January 1st, 1847, Nancy in the crudest of log huts, gave birth to a son Horace Martin Alexander, Jr. The weather was bitter cold. There was not sufficient bedding to keep the mother and babe warm and dry. The little lady was lonely. She called for her husband’s riding boots, which was all she had of him, and would hug them to her and weep. On the 28th of January she died. Three days later the month old infant died too. With Nancy during her illness was my grandmother, Catherine Houston, then an orphan girl of fifteen years. After the children went to live with Nancy's sister, Mrs. Henry Rollins. Catherine was taken along too to take care of the children who loved her. Together they crossed the plains. Grandfather, now a Corporal in the Battalion, received word of his wife’s death months later at San Diego. He could not go to his children until his term of enlistment expired in July, the 16th. When he was mustered out of service he did not wait for his company to march, but with a companion or two, set forth at once on horseback for the Great Salt Lake. They arrived in Salt Lake about October 16th, 1847. Grandfather, who had bartered the shirt off his back to get a pint of beans to keep himself and his companions from starving, had to half bury himself in the straw of Brother Hamilton's stable, while his companion went to the house of Hamilton’s to explain his plight. That night Sister Hamilton made grandfather a shirt out of an old skirt. Grandfather here received word that his children, with one of the Parley Pratt Companies was well on its way to the Valley. So with a few other brothers he hurried forth again on horseback to meet them. It is thought that he sighted the emigrant train somewhere in Wyoming. It was touching, this meeting of the father and his motherless girls. It is small wonder that Grandfather learned to love this young Catherine when he first met her thus, mothering his children. The party reached Utah early in November. On November 6th Grandfather began to work for Madison Hamilton. Grandmother still continued to live with the Henry Rollins family and to take care of the little Alexanders. On February 15, 1849, Horace and Catherine were married. At the same time, in obedience to the advise of his friend and leader Brigham Young, he married Martha Burwell, whom he had met in Salt Lake. In 1853 Grandfather was called to help settle Parowan, Iron County. Carpenters were sorely needed. It was hard to have to leave their good comfortable home to go again into a new country. But they did without a murmur. They lived here eight years. Here my mother, Helen Alexander, was born. They came back to settle in Springville in November 1861. Here Grandfather was made Captain of the “Silver Greys” a company of Militia organized to guard the town during the Civil War. For a few years both wives lived together in one house. Then Grandfather secured a home for each as the families were getting so large. In 1869 when Grandfather moved with Catherine and family to Provo to help build the woolen mills, Martha remained in Springville till her death, many years later. In November 1875, Grandfather sold his land to get money to go on a mission to the Southern States. He wished to convert his own people and also wished to see if he might get a share of his father's estate. He found his parents dead, says his diary, and his brothers and sisters either dead or most of them moved to Indiana, Chicago and other places. The estate, like many others, had been ravaged by the Civil War and had been sold. He found such misery and poverty there, in Virginia and Kentucky among those who had once been wealthy. He was very kindly received by his relatives, both of Kentucky and Virginia. In his birthplace, he found 1203 first cousins. A nephew in Kentucky took him, in his fine barouche with his spanking bays, for a ride through Fleming County, Kentucky. The carriage was closed, and the horses trotted so fast they had gone a mile beyond his old home before he recognized the estate. Then he said he would not have known it but for the creek where he used to go fishing as a boy. He returned from his mission in 1876. In September 1881 he died at his home in Provo. He was a man who loved honor and truth. He was fair, just and had a sense of humor. All who knew him loved and respected him.

Horace M Alexander Company (1847 Los Angeles to SLC

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 7 months ago Updated: 7 months ago

Bulkley, Newman, "Fifteen Months' Experience," Juvenile Instructor 17, no. 21 (1 Nov. 1882): 334. Trail Excerpt Related Companies Horace M. Alexander Company (1847) Related Persons Horace Martin Alexander Newman Bulkley Source Locations Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah On the 24th, started from Los Angeles for Salt Lake Valley. My outfit consisted of one Spanish, mare, one wild male, one hundred pounds of flour, a few beans, one pair of pants, two half-worn hickory shirts, the coat with which I left home, one pair of shoes, one blanket, my musket and acoutrements, including some twenty-five rounds of cartridges. I had not traveled to exceed ten miles, when my pack saddle turned under my mule's belly, and she broke loose from me and ran away. I expected that would be the last I would see of her; but lucky for me, there chanced to be a Spanish boy near by, and I got him to bring her back, for which I paid him the last dollar I had. I then passed on to Mr. Pecoe's ranch, where my companions made arrangements for forty-four head of wild four-year-old steers, for which we were to pay four dollars per head, with the intention of driving them along for beef. But this proved a failure; we were unable to manage them, and after two days' trial, we were obliged to shoot them all down and jerk the beef. While trying to drive these critters, my riding animal became crippled, and in a few days gave out, and I had to leave her, which left me on foot, to travel and keep up with pack animals, which was very hard to do, as I had to wade or swim all the streams, which, some days, kept me wet from morning till night. However, I made the trip to Salt Lake, arriving there on the 16th day of October, 1847, after a journey of about fifteen hundred miles, having waded or swum all the streams in that distance, even wading the Truckee thirteen times in two days.e

Missionary journals

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 7 months ago Updated: 7 months ago

Diary of Horace Martin Alexander 1875-1876 Note: This was originally typed up by Glenn R. Foster of Salinas, California in 1960. I left Salt Lake City November 9, 1875 on Utah Central Train at 7 o’clock. Arrived at Ogden at 10:00 and then went on the UPRR bound for Omaha. Arrived at said place in good time in 56 hours from Ogden; crossed over to Council Bluffs. Same night went to William Denton’s, my nephew, and found them all well and much pleased to see me. I hadn’t seen them in thirty years. I stayed with them some few days, then commenced my traveling. Got a chance to go to Pueblo in a wagon, then on my way. Found Mrs. Harrington. Stayed all night with her. She is the widow of Daniel Harrington. Found her to be a strong Josephite. Next day they took me across to one of Daniel Harrington’s sisters. They were all very glad to see me but all very strong Josephites and very much down on the Brighamites. I tried to convince them of their error, but it was of no avail. They conveyed me to Pueblo, where found Martin Wells, one of my soldier boys, who was very glad to see me and treated me with great respect and kindness. Found him gone into infidelity and could do nothing with him. Next day I went to David Studies, a cousin to my wife. Found him in the same fix with the whole connection. They all treated me with great respect and kindness. Took me wherever I wished to go through the country. I succeeded in getting some of the genealogy of my wife’s people, which was part of my mission. I came across one of my wife’s cousins, who is looking for some great and mighty man to be raised up to lead the church, and then he calculates to jump in again, and go on. He has belonged to the church and was in Utah and has two wives and still lives with them and provides for them. I told him not to wait too long and miss the cars for they never waited for them who would make time. I talked and preached to them till I was sure I could do nothing for them, and left and went over to the Nishnabotan, where I found the people about the same fix. They were all very anxious to know concerning our Country and the mines, but the Gospel they cared nothing for. I found they would believe all I would tell them concerning the mines, but were not willing to hear the gospel. I satisfied myself in that region, and they furnished me with means to go back to Council Bluffs, where I arrived in safety, and was invited to attend a Thanksgiving meeting among all the church at the Meterdice Meeting House which I attended hoping to have the privilege of representing the Church of Latter Day Saints, but lo and behold, they never said “turkey” to me, but at the close of the meeting there was one of my old acquaintances, a schoolmate when we were boys, who invited me to dinner with him, which I never refuse these days. He is a rich merchant in this place. I enjoyed an excellent dinner which I appreciated more than the meeting by all odds. I can well perceive that the different creeds and churches are trying to unite in persecuting the Saints, the Methodists being the head, but they are all very weak and have little power above that of man. It is sickening to hear them attempt to preach, having the form and denying the power. My nephew invited me to attend a two days meeting of his about twenty miles out in the country. He belongs to what they call the Christian Church. They are very nearly like our people. I went with him and found him to be a very fine speaker. He invited me to the stand, and I accepted the invitation and spoke to these people and took for text “I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ for it is the power of God unto salvation.” (2 pages missing from diary) The time arrived when I was ready to visit my old friend in the country, and my nephew hitched up his buggy and took me out. He was much pleased to see me and insisted on my staying with him a week, and I finally agreed to do so, and my nephew returned back home. He said he had a great many things to say to me concerning our people. He was once a very strong Mormon and likewise a polygamist, but had learned better. He has turned infidel, and on the back of that is a strong Spiritualist, and between the two is a fair way to make his calling and election for destruction. He is very sick and miserable and thinks all he has to do look out for is money and is likely to have his heart’s content of it. He informs me that he has just returned from visiting the great medium down in Missouri. He had ten seances as he called them, and has seen and heard many things, among the greatest of them was that he saw and talked with Joseph Smith, and that he asked him concerning his son Joseph, and his reply was that he was a very good man and would do no harm, but was sorry concerning his son David, as he was not in his right mind. He said to him that they killed me, but they did not get my body. Said he to Joseph, “It has been a great mystery among the people to what was done with your body. Won’t you tell me where it is?” Said he, “Emma knows where it is,” but said he, “That still leaves me in the dark concerning it.” “Well,” said he, “it was buried in the yard at the Mansion House and the sod placed over it.” Then he vanished and said no more. I tried to reason him out of his notion, but to no avail. So he would hitch up his carriage and take me around and show me his fine farm and tenants by day, and sit up nearly all night and talk and tell all his ups and downs since he came from the Battalion and how he got his eyes open to the faults of the Mormons. I assure you, it was very tiresome to me, and I told him if he wished me to stay with him any longer, he must talk on some other subject, which he very readily did, and never mentioned it again, and when I wished to come to the Bluffs he brought me in his fine carriage and proffered to lend me money to go on with, that being all I was waiting for, as I could not raise it in any other way, and I had done all that it seemed I could do in this country. I then went to the different depots and learned what my passage would cost, and found that there was none but the “Northwestern” would take me on half fare, and so I was compelled to go by way of Chicago. It is out of my way, but I am compelled to go that way. I embarked on the Great Northwestern and in a few hours was in Chicago, where I met Brother Bullock and Wood, and we had a good time for a few moments, and then I embarked on the Cincinnati & Muncie Town R.R. for Winchester, (Randolph Co.,) Indiana, where I arrived in good time all safe. Found all my connections well and much pleased to see me, but could get no place to preach. The people are all infidel and Universalists, but had a great many questions to ask in which I took great delight in answering with them on all subjects, concerning our people and country, and disabused the mind of many concerning our people. I never get to bed till midnight, and often till three o’clock in the morning. They converse and never see me but that they gaze at me as though I were some monk. I spent Christmas here and had a pleasant time with old acquaintances. After I had done all that I could, I commenced fixing to go to Kentucky, where I started for by way of Cincinnati and Maysville, where I stopped a few days but could not get to preach, and from there I took rail for Flemming County, and arrived in good time, and found all my connections well and much pleased to see me. This is the place where my last brother died, and is buried. Tomorrow is New Years. I shall spend New Year’s here, and then I will commence traveling through the State, and try what I can do in preaching the Gospel to the people. I was raised it this country but about 25 miles from here. The weather is very fine and warm at this time like spring. January 10, 1876: I started for Bath County, Ky. With my nephew, James Alexander and wife and two small sons in his fine baruche and “spanken bays’ on turnpike. Stopped at Hellsburrow, Fleming Co., Ky, where I found an old schoolmate and many of my old acquaintances and was within two and a half miles of where I was raised. (Note: Horace Martin Alexander moved with his parents from Orange Co., Va., to Fleming Co., Ky., in the spring of 1817 when he was but 5 years old. GRF) It was all I could do to get away from the next morning I just did lie down that night, and a great many of them followed me a half-mile to talk to me. James Alexander, my nephew, was in something of a hurry, having his family with him. So we passed on, and being in a closed carriage, I passed by the old homestead and did not know it, until I had got a half-mile beyond, and then I should not have known it if I had not come to a creek that I used to fish in when I was a small boy. Oh, how everything has changed! So we traveled on to Bath Co., Ky., where James wife’s mother lives. There we left her and two sons, and we traveled on alone to his Uncle Elliot Daniels, where we spent three or four days very pleasantly, and I preached the gospel to them, and they were very favorable towards our people. There never has been a Mormon in this country before. I seem to be a perfect show among the people. Everyone wants to talk to me and ask questions concerning Mormonism, and I want to tell them just as bad, and find great freedom in so doing, and have given general satisfaction and have been greatly blessed in all my efforts to allay prejudice among the people. But they all seem to have lost all sympathy for religious principles. All they seem to care for is money and politics. I traveled around some five or six days in Bath Country and crossed over into Flemming Country where I found one of my cousins that I hadn’t seen for some fifty years. He was much pleased to see me. He was quite an old man with a large family, and was much pleased to see me and hear Mormonism preached, and believed it, and all his family. I had them all get together and preached to them. They would have joined the Church but for the prejudice of the people, and they thought it would be better to wait until they could get away from the country. I took the names of all of them and then left for Mayslick, Mason County, Kentucky where I traveled through that country and preached where I could get a chance, and conversed with the people in all ways that I could. They were all very anxious to learn something about great mining interest in Utah, but the gospel was of secondary considerations. I remained there some two weeks. Then went aboard a steamer bound for Kanwha River, West Virginia, where I landed safe on the 15th of January at Coalburg West Virginia, where I remained one week and preached and went from house to house among the miners. The people are all miners in this locality and seem to be a very good and honest people. They seem to be much pleased with the gospel, but dare not let it be known as the men owning the mines are not willing for them to investigate any kind of religion for fear of losing them. They know nothing but mining and are very afraid of losing their place of business. After spending one week in visiting and preaching to them nights, as that was all the chance to see them, as they were all the time in the mines in daytime, from there I took rail for Gordonsville, East Virginia, 278 miles, and thence to Cavesville, 12 miles, Orange Country, where I was born, where I found many of my relatives, as near as first cousins, in all 1,203. All my grandfathers and mothers, Uncles and Aunts being dead. I was very kindly received amongst them. They were all completely broken up and very poor and completely discouraged. There is very hard times in this country and no prospect for betterment at present. I stayed with Robert Ehart one week, and then he took me some ten miles to James Lucas where I had some connections living, where I had a very tedious discussion with a very rich gentleman on polygamy, and we quit because he had no reason about him on the subject. The people seem to be very ignorant about Mormonism. I tried to get to preach, but this fellow keeps the people away with his misrepresentation concerning polygamy and a thousand other falsehoods. February 7th I went to cousin John Luke Lucas, and he conveyed me to Clark Ehart’s, another cousin, where I found him to be a very intelligent man, and had never seen a Mormon before and was much pleased to see me and hear Mormonism, and he believed it with all his heart, but said he could not be baptized at present. He wanted time for consideration and insisted on my leaving the Book of Mormon, which I did, under promise of his reading it understandingly with a prayerful heart, and then to circulate it through his neighborhood and adjoining counties, and I promised to send him some Elders to baptize him and family when they were ready. He was to write and let me know when he is ready. From there I went into Greene Co., Va., where I found another cousin, Benjamin F. Ehart (Note: Benjamin Franklin Ehart was formerly of Madison Co., Va., and a former schoolteacher. GRF), a very intelligent gentleman, a county surveyor, who received me very kindly and was very much pleased to listen to our doctrine and told his wife that this was what he had been praying to hear so long; said that he had been satisfied for a long time that it was never intended for a man to only have one woman and that the human family had got below the beasts in that respect. He was a Campbellite. I stayed with him some days. He was very anxious for me to stay longer, but having set other appointments, I was forced to leave him, under promise to come again before I left the country, if I could. I went from there to John Lucas’s a bachelor, that has a nigger family doing his work. He is very well off. He has a fine farm and plenty of everything around him. Tells me he expects to marry this spring. He thinks he will not be a Mormon because one wife is all he can get along with at present. I tell him he can be a Mormon with one wife, but he must have one at least before he can be a good Mormon. I tried to tell him that he should have at least a half-dozen to make up lost time as he is 36 years old at this time. Polygamy seems to be the great bone of contention among the people where I travel and first and last inquiry that is made in our faith. I have been very successful in giving satisfaction on the subject, amidst all of the false reports that they have heard. There has never been any Mormons in these parts before. I heard of Brothers Teasdale and Milner yesterday or sometime ago, and I am going tomorrow to see if I can get tract of them. Feel quite done out in traveling so much since I have been here and must rest a few days and recruit up. February 9th: Just returned from a tour of four days traveling. Could not get to join Brothers Teasdale and Milner. Knowledge that they have gone to Washington. The people seem to take no interest in the gospel, whatever. I have succeeded in getting a very great many genealogies of my people in the last few days. People treat me very kind. February 10th: Went to see the graves of many of my dead friends, and found many of them as far back as 1770 and 1776. Find everything all torn to pieces in this country on account of the Civil War. The country is in a desperate fix and nothing to build it up with anymore. It is remarkable weather, just like spring. I have traveled twelve miles this morning, and the birds are singing beautiful and I feel almost homesick, as there seems to be no opening for preaching at present, as the people seem so cast down in their feelings in consequence of their poverty. Saturday 12th February, 1876: I started to Charlottesville, 30 miles horseback, arrived in good time. Found my cousin, Elizabeth Jones in good health and much pleased to see me. I informed her how I was, and what my business was, and wished to preach, but there could be no place got to preach, and so there was a house full of the neighbors collected in, and I preached to them. They had never seen a Mormon before, and I was very narrowly scrutinized and a thousand and one questions asked, which I delighted to answer to the full satisfaction of all, and left a very good impression on the minds of the people present. Thursday February 17, 1876: Returned from Charlottesville to Orange County to my cousin R. Ehart. Found them all well. I was much interested in visiting the old residence of Thomas Jefferson. It stands about one mile from Charlottesville on a very elevated situation. Has a fair view of all the surrounding country, as well as Charlottesville. I had the honor of being introduced to a nephew of the great statesman, and asked me many questions concerning our country and people, and seemed to be well pleased with my answers, and gave me a very kind invitation to call on him again before I left the country. I have an appointment on Sunday at Materson Court House where I shall attend and then I shall return to Gordonsville, Va. And there I shall take rail for West Virginia. The weather is rather stormy but the winter has been very fine in this country. Called to see one of my cousins in the country who was very much pleased to see me and very favorable to our doctrine, and said if it was not for polygamy, she would be a Mormon, but that she could not subscribe to it, but she might see different some day. I left a very favorable impression with her. I was the first she had ever seen, but had heard very much concerning them, and that she had been under the impression that she would not suffer one to come into her house if she knew it from the character they bore in the country. She seemed to be very sorry that she felt so toward us as she had some connections among them, and asked my pardon for ever having thought it. Said from all appearances that I was an honor to all the connections in this country. Said you must be a long ways above the most of our people. I told her that I was a long ways below average, both in appearance and intelligence. She rather doubted that, but I assured her that it was true. She is very intelligent and very rich in lands and tenements, but like all the rest has no money and can’t raise money to pay taxes on the land estate. Lots of land sold to pay the tax. I am almost homesick. There seems to be but little use in preaching to the people. They seem willing to believe a lie that they may be damned. Sunday 20th February: Rode 20 miles horseback to Gordonsville. Had to wait for train until 1:00 at night. Had sixty cents left. Had no dinner. Gave fifty cents for supper. Traveled 278 miles. Gave my last ten cents for a cup of coffee. Arrived at Coalberg on Kanawha River (W. Va.) all right, with the exception of a little gnawing of the stomach, but soon got over that when my niece prepared some good fried chicken, pork, and crust coffee and biscuits. I feel very thankful that I fell so well and have such good friends in this country. Before I got done eating, she presented me with money enough to pay my passage to the state of Indiana, that my nephew had sent to me, learning that I was out of money. This was not very bad to take among the balance, I assure you. I shall remain here for a few days and then start for Kentucky on my way to Indiana. I feel very much worn out from traveling. Saw much in old Virginia as I had to travel in carriages and wagons and horseback. It was very hard for me. I traveled over four counties, Orange, Greene, Madison, and Albemarle, and never got to bed short of midnight. I talked and preached till I got so very hoarse that I had to quit, and all to no effect unless it was the means of disabusing the minds of the people concerning our people and doctrine. They never had seen a Mormon before and were much pleased to see a Mormon as they had heard so much about our doctrine and people. I had much pleasure in giving them the history of our people and doctrine which they were much pleased to hear. I think there will eventually be a large branch of the church raised in these parts, as the people are very poor from the effects of the war, and their country is very poor and worn out. The country is full of Negroes, and they will eventually own the country, and the sooner the better, as it is fit for no other people. The people are all insolvent since the war. Their lands are much of it sold for taxes and scarcely will bring in enough to pay it. The most distressing country I was ever in. I stayed for weeks in that country and found I could do nothing and left. Came to Gordenville. Heard of Brother Milner & Evans or Ivins. They had preached in that town and left for Washington City. Have not seen a Mormon since I left Bro. Bullock and Wood in Chicago as I came out. I have written several times to St. Louis to Brother Stura but could get no answer from him. Sunday, 20th of February: Took rail for West Virginia. Arrived at Coalburg in good time, and stopped one week where I could, as I went through to East Virginia. I had made quite an impression among the people. Preached several times, but the Methodists had been cautioning the people concerning the Mormons, and I soon found there was no use to spend time with them. I found a Mr. Anderson, a Christian preacher with whom I formed an acquaintance and assisted him in battling with the Methodists. He was very thankful to see me as I gave him the “Woodchuck Sermon” to preach to them, and he did it to perfection, and they were very much chagrined and laid it all to me. I told them that I would own up to it and gave them some view of the doctrines of Christ and the doctrines of men, and the “Woodchuck Story.” They would not have anything to do with me. Said they would wait till their Pastor came and he would give me “Woodchuck.” I waited one week, and he never came. I should be much pleased to get with him a little while and tear his house down from over his head. I have lifted the cloak from off his shoulders so that the folks begin to see under it and see that there is something rotten in Denmark. Am now fixing to leave for Kentucky. The steamer Julie is to be up on Tuesday, and I shall go on her. I am so very much worn out traveling on the car this morning. The 27th: Had a long talk with a Baptist lady who is very anxious to know something about our doctrine. Her husband is a Methodist and she thinks that the Methodists have nothing for her, and so they do not agree in matters of religion. I tell her that a house divided against itself cannot stand. I tell her that they had better make a compromise and quit the doctrine of men and obey the doctrine of Christ, that they may be saved in the Celestial Kingdom of God. But she is not fully convinced of the Gospel. Polygamy stares her in the face, and this fiddling and dancing she has understood the Mormons practice. This she thinks is awful, having been taught that the devil is in the fiddle, and it would be committing an unpardonable sin to have one in the house overnight. I tell her that that is a fair sample of all these religions, nothing real nor substantial. It is all superstition as “sounding brass and tinkling cymbals.” She finally acknowledged that it is far beyond her comprehension and she must begin to think for herself and not depend upon what others may say concerning religious matters. I told her that was just the thing for her to attend to. She thanked me for my kind instruction and wished me success. Today I must begin fixing for my journey. March 1st. I took rail at Coalsburg, West Virginia, where I arrived at 4 o’clock in the afternoon. Found the Packet Steamboat in waiting for us. Went aboard and was soon on sail for Maysville, Kentucky, where we landed at half-past two the same night, 171 miles. Went to Tavern and sat till morning, not having money to get supper nor bed. I was very sick for want of something to eat and for sleep. I took my valise and started two miles to Woodville up the river, and I was till nearly noon getting there in consequence of being so sick from doing without eating or sleep. Went to my niece who was sick, expecting any moment to be confined. But she was so glad to see me that she said she would put it off for awhile and soon had me a very sumptuous meal and prepared me a good bed in a back room away from all noise, and I lay down and slept for hours, and I got up and felt like a new man. Ate supper and lay down again and slept till morning. I arose, washed, and took breakfast and felt intensely recruited, ready to pursue my journey. Told my niece that I would not have her wait any longer, that I would travel on. She said she thought she could wait a few days longer if I did not feel entirely well. I thanked her and thought I could travel very well and came to the depot and found the train just ready to start. I got aboard and went to Ewin Station, 75 miles, where I got off and took the turnpike 2 ½ miles where my last brother’s wife lived. Found them all well, and glad to see me, and I assure you that I was glad to get there, for I was nearly given out from traveling so much. Here I expect to remain for a few days until I could get rested. They are very anxious for me to stay with them, no more so than I am to stay, for I feel that I must have rest or go under. I made a call in those parts on my outward journey and shall travel some through the country before I leave Kentucky as the people are very friendly and inquisitive concerning our doctrine and people. Sunday, 5th: I had an appointment at Mayslick, Mason County, where I went twelve miles and found a very few collected, and I gave them a short sermon and returned back the same day and stayed with one of my nieces. Next day rode out to the cemetery, where my brother’s nephew and niece and several of their children were buried. Stayed there till Wednesday, took train for Maysville where I arrived in good time. Found my niece not very well. Stayed two days, then took Steamer “Bate Wildwood Packet” for Cincinnati, where I arrived in good time and stayed two days and tried to preach to the people, but could not get a hearing. Took rail for Winchester, Indiana where I arrived in good time and found my nephew and family all well and glad to see me. After an absence of two months in West and East Virginia and Kentucky, felt very much worn out with traveling. Weather very rainy and bad. Rested a few days and then will resume my travels. March 17, 1876: Went to Muncietown, Delaware Co., Indiana, where I had several meetings. Found a Mrs. Flemming, a widow-lady, the wife of the Brother of Brother Flemming of Provo, Deseret. Was very friendly and was glad to hear from her friends in Utah, but was not willing to hear Mormonism. Stayed some five or six days, and then went to Farmland, Randolph County, where I found an old acquaintance. He was a Methodist. He was very glad to see me, but when he found that I was a Mormon, was not quite so glad, but treated me well. Stayed a few days, but could get no place to preach. The Newelites were holding a protracted meeting in the place, and I was invited to attend, and I did so, as I hadn’t heard a sermon of the denomination for fifty years and it was as good as any theater I was ever in in my life. Meeting held two hours, and they laughed and shouted and sung, preached, and extended all hands. This was the first kind of people I ever heard preach in my life. It was when I was five years old, my mother belonged to that church at that time. I asked to preach in their meeting house, but could not get the chance. Stayed there three days and returned to Winchester on the 25th of March. Visited the graves of my father and mother, and brothers, and dedicated them to the Lord to wait the resurrection of the just. The weather is very bad today, snowing very hard. Have an appointment at Huntsville on Sunday, 15 miles from here. Roads very bad. Left Winchester April 6, 1876. Went to Muncietown. Stayed one day, then from there went to Andersonville. Stayed one day and visited one of my nieces. (Andersonville is in Madison Co., Indiana) April 9, 1876: Went to Indianapolis, (Marion Co., Ind.). Stayed there three days. Visited the great rolling mills where they make so many railroad irons and also visited the State House and many other places of interest, especially the mammoth Courthouse just being completed. One of the finest buildings I have ever seen in my life – five stores above the ground. This is one of the finest cities in the U. S. One of the great railroad centers – roads going in all directions out of this city, with many turnpike roads; just a solid city for miles. My nephew lives just four miles from the Union Depot which is in the center of the City, at what is called Cold Bright Woods Station, where the Beeline Co. is building one of the largest roundhouses in the U. S. and car factory all combined. I have been very much interested in this place. I have been very busy in teaching the people concerning our principles and doctrines, and have been very much blessed in disabusing the minds of the people concerning our people. April 10, 1876. Left on the 12 o’clock train for Chicago. Arrived at 8 o’clock in the evening. Took express wagon for West Harrison St., No. 189, where I found a nephew of mine that I had not seen for thirty odd years by the name of Horace Martin Alexander. He was much pleased to see me and took great pains in taking me around and showing me the city and the most prominent places. There are great wonders to be seen in this place. It is a wonderful city. I have been well entertained since arriving in Chicago and have traveled over a great portion of the city in all directions, where the street cars run, and that is all over the city. My nephew goes with me, and we can get to ride wherever we want to go for five cents, from one mile to five. I went to a great political meeting held in the great Exposition Hall, where there was over 20,000 people. At night Went in the great museum, and last night went to the great Catholic Church and Cathedral. Heard a Catholic sermon. I have been very busy since I arrived in this place (Chicago) in conversing with all that came in my way concerning the gospel. My nephew has a very extensive acquaintance in this place, his being a carriage painter by trade, and by that means gets acquainted with a great many people. I expect to leave this place on the 15th for Morrison, Illinois, where I shall spend a few days with some of my connections and preach to them if I can get the chance. Chances are few in this country. I arrived in this place safe, and found two of my nephews, one niece, and all well, and much pleased to see me. They never had seen me before. They are very anxious to go to Utah. Have many questions to ask concerning our country, but silver and gold seem to be the God they wish to worship, and the God of Heaven is a secondary consideration with them. April 20th, 1876: Came to Bureau County, Illinois to my sister-in-law’s where I was very kindly received by the family, and regret much I had not seen them for thirty years. Went to Morrison, 28 miles, and visited three of my nephews that live there; very interesting gentlemen and much pleased to see me and hear Mormonism, in which I was much pleased to teach to them. They had heard much evil as is usual in all cases among the people in the world wherever I have traveled, and a great prejudice among the people. My people had never seen a Mormon until they saw me, and I am a great wonder among them, and they are willing to believe what I tell them, and feel much interested in what I tell them, but are not willing to obey the gospel at this time, but say they will come to Utah just as soon as they can arrange their business. Sunday Morning, April 20th, 1876: Left for Rock Island by train. Arrived in due time. Went aboard “Packet Young Lin” to Keokuk. Arrived in good time after searching at Nauvoo and looking over the doomed city awhile and getting a small block of stone that was cut out of one of the places. Went from there to Alexandria, Missouri. Took the road for Kahoka, County, Mo. Stayed in that place four days. (Last pages missing) End of diary

Saints Find The Place, A Day-By-Day Pioneer Experience

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 7 months ago Updated: 7 months ago

Wednesday, April 28,1847 Company B, Mormon Battalion, at San Diego, California Henry Bigler commented on “something of a human form” who was seen on the streets of San Diego begging for food. He claimed to be one of Fremont’s men and said he had been traveling in the Rocky Mountains for years. One of his shoulders was disabled and he had a wound in his head. Horace M. Alexander recognized him from Missouri. The man acknowledged that he was one of the mob who massacred the saints at Haun’s mill in Missouri. He begged for forgiveness. Saints Find The Place A Day-By-Day Pioneer Experience By David Crocket LDS-Gems Pioneer Trek Series, volume 3 LDS-Gems Press

INTERACTION AMONG THE ALEXANDER, WALKER AND ROLLINS FAMILIES

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 7 months ago Updated: 7 months ago

The Alexander Family of Virginia, Indiana, & Utah and the related Ehart, & Lucas Families of Virginia and the Walker, Cresse & Townsend Families of New York & New Jersey A James Alexander Sr, and a James Alexander of Orange County, Virginia apprear on the Army Register of Service during the Revolutionary War. James Alexander Sr. served with Captain Rankin's Company, Orange County, Virginia. - exempted 1779 for infirmity. James Alexander served with Captain Campbell's Company, Orange County, Virginia 1779, and with Captain Dickey's Company, Orange County, 1781. In 1792 James Alexander Jr married Frances Ehart in Orange County, where they remained until sometime after 1818. Frances Ehart, born 26 September 1772 in Culpepper County, Virginia, was the daughter of Adam Michael Ehart and Mary Lucas. The Ehart Family The 1785 Virginia census lists Adam Ehart of Orange County as a head of household consisting of 6 whites, one dwelling and one slave. The 1787 census lists one slave over 16, and one slave under sixteen, 3 horses and 10 cattle. Both Adarn and a Jacob Ehart are listed as Orange County petitioners for payments as soldiers in the Revolutionary War. The Lucas Family William Lucas, the father of Mary Lucas appeared on a list of militia paid off at Pittsburgh (Fort Pitt) in 1775, and another list of those paid off at Romney, also in 1775. It is probable that these were colonial troops in Dunmore's War late in receiving their pay. Most later joined the Revolutionary forces. 22 The 1782 Virginia census lists William Lucas of Orange County as the head of household of 8 whites, and 17 slaves. The 1785 census records a household of 6 whites, one dwelling and 8 slaves. John Murray, the 4th Ear] of Dunmore in an Indian campaign known as Dunmore's War. One expedition was headed by Andrew Lewis, while he personally led another expedition from Fort Dunmore at Pittsburgh. A final treaty was negotiated with the Indians in the Scioto Valley. With the outbreak of the Revolution, Dunmore headed the loyalist forces in Virginia, shelling and burning Norfolk, Virginia in 1776. Dunmore's War. In 1774 a force of Virginian's was led by Chronology of Horace Martin Alexander (combined with the Walker family chronology after the 1834 marriage of Horace Martin Alexander & Nancy Reeder Walker) compiled by Len Evans 1782 James Alexander sr. Capt. Rankin's's Company. Orange County, Virginia. Exempted 1779 for infirmity. Virginia Census 1782 dwellings whites blacks William Lucas Orange County 8 17 John Lucas " 10 - 1785 Virginia Census 1785 William Lucas Olange County 1 6 8 William Lucas jr " - 5 Adam Ehart " 1 6 1 Jacob Ehart " - 4 1 1787 Virginia Census 1787 blacks blacks horses cattle 16+ 16- Adam Ehart Orange County 1 1 3 10 Jacob Ehart " - - 2 6 1792 James Alexander marries Frances Ehart in Orange County, Virginia where they remain until about 1807. 1805 The future Prophet Joseph Smith is born in Vermont. 1812 February 15 - Horace Martin Alexander is born near Canesville, Orange County, Virginia. 1830-2 The Book of Mormon is published, and the church organized in Fayette, NY. Joseph Smith settles in Kirtland, Ohio. Jackson County, Missouri is identified as Zion and settlement begins. Much proselytizing takes place in Missouri by church members passing back and forth from Kirtland, Ohio and Jackson County, Missouri. When Joseph Smith returned to Ohio in May 1832 there were 300 converts in Missouri. 1833-4 In July, strife between Mormons and non-Mormons in Jackson County, Missouri reaches the flash point when the office of the churches newspaper is burned by a mob. By November Mormons are forced to flee Jackson County, most settle in Clay County, MO According to his redress petition John R Walker and his family were in Jackson county, and driven out “by the Hands of a mob who pillaged and destroyed my Goods &C. &C. in Jackson and Caldwell Countys and Which Losses I Certify To be no Less than Five Hundred Dollars further that I suffered many Injuries from this mob By Breaking in my Windows By Thrusting Long Poles Through at My family and Driving them from their Habitation.” There is no record that other members of the Walker family were also in Jackson county. 1834 Horace Martin Alexander marries Nancy Reader Walker in Randolph County, Indiana - They are married by Nancy's father Oliver Walker, Justice of the Peace. 1836-7 Mormons are physically expelled from Clay County, MO. Most settle in Caldwell and Davies counties. Far West, Caldwell County becomes the center of Mormon settlement. 1836H. M. Alexander's first child is born in West Liberty, Clay County, MO 1838Through-out the summer tensions between Mormons and non-Mormons intensifies, with full scale war breaking out by autumn. In November, Joseph smith and other church leaders are arrested, the Mormons disarmed, and Far West plundered by the Missouri militias. During the winter and spring of 1838-9 the Mormon population was forced east across the state and Mississippi River into Illinois. 5 October - Horace M Alexander requests that he be made an Elder and to be accompanied by another Elder to go to Indiana and Ohio. He was made an Elder 5 October 1838, at Far West, Bringham Young presiding. 7 October- A Patriarchal Blessing pronounced by Joseph Smith Sr. upon the head of Horace M Alexander, son of James Alexander, who was born in Montgomery Orange County, Virginia. February 18th, 1812, given at Far West Mo. October 7th 1838. Brother Horace, in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Him who was crucified and slain for the sins of the World, in His name I lay my hands upon thy head and I bless thee with the blessings of a father. Thou shalt be blessed in as much as thou hast kept the commandments and in as much as thou hast thus far obeyed the commandments of the Lord, I pray God that he would still be with thee, and preserve thee that thou mayest not fall, and let His angels watch over thee, and that he would be thy frontlet and thy rearward. I now say unto thee Trust in God, trust not in the arm of flesh nor in thine own wisdom, lean upon the arm of God, be faithful and prayerful and ere thou shalt go far from thy home go into the grove and there call upon the Lord and there it shall be made known unto thee, what thou shalt do. Remember these things for I feel that they are spoken by the spirit of truth, be energetic and rend the Heavens by thy prayers and the glories of Heaven shall be reveled unto thee and the vision of thy mind shall be enlightened for thou shalt receive the Priesthood and thy sins are forgiven and thy name is written in Heaven, thou shalt be mighty in proclaiming the gospel and among those who carry the gospel forth there shall be none mightier than thee, thy name shall be had in remembrance to the latest generation, and thy blessing shall be handed down from generation to generation, to thy posterity, for thy posterity shall be numerous, they shall become eminent and be renowned, and the blessings of Abraham Isaac and Jacob shall be given thee, thou shalt have a name and a place among the sons of Joseph for thou art of the blood of Joseph, and of the seed of Ephraim and thou art one of the horns of Joseph that must push many people together, and thy voice shall be heard among many nations who are afar off, even among nations who have not heard that there be a God. Trust in God and all opposition shall be prostrated before thee, thine enemies shall have no power over thee. The great men of the Earth shall seek thy company and learn of thee. The earth shall tremble at thy word the elements shall obey thee, waters and tempests shall not harm thee, prison walls nor chains cannot hold thee, and many of the dead shall arise and come forth at thy command. Thou shall be of the Hundred and forty four thousand and learn that song which none but that number can can learn, and I seal the seal of God upon Thee, thou shalt have power over the destroyer and I leave thee in the hands of the Lord, and I seal these blessings upon thee in the name of Jesus, even so, Amen. 30 October - Oliver Walker's role as peace maker at the time of the Haun's Mill massacre Oliver Walker owns 100 acres of land about 3 miles from Haun's Mill, Caldwell county, MO. According to the testimony of Isaac Leany, in a Mormon Redress Petition, signed April the 20 1839 Quincy Illinois: “ “I Shall now procede to give an account of the bloody but(c)hery that taken place at a blacksmyth Shop at Hawns mille on Shoal creek on the 30th day of Oct. 1838. the mob party increased from time to time & committed outrages after outrages until at lenth the mormons not willing to bare it no longer they Said to the general what must they do was they not to have no protection must they Stand and See there property Stolen there familys abused there houses burned there cattle drove off & nothing to be done for them. then jeneral Donathan Said to them go & defend your Selves & drive the mob from Daviess county drive them to hell, breathing out an oath against them. the mormons then went out Supposing that they was legaly ortherized, & finding that the mob had burned Six or Seven of there houses & was carying on at a great hand Stealing & driveing off there Stock So the mormons went to work determed to rout them or dy in the attempt, they Soon got the mob in the notion of leaving Daviess county So a great portion of them fled in to Livingston ajoining county & told that the mormons was burning there houses Steeling & plundering & it was Soon blown to the four winds that the mormons was doing everything that was bad now the citiz of livingston & the mob that had left Daviess began to Steel cattle from the mormons that lived in the neighbourhood of Hawns mille & also to go threw the neighbourhood & take there guns from them, they came twice & drove off cattle & an other time they came & took Several guns they also as we heard Said that they would burn our mill down, & we new that they was not too good to do it, & nowing that it was our only chance to get on going, for we dare not to go to there milles So about thirty of us went to guard them from burning it down & while we was guarding the mill we held a council to now what plan we Should fall upon to accomplish a treaty or to come on Some conditions of peace it was voted that a letter Should be written & Sent to them imediately desireing to k[n]ow what there determinations was, for they had imboddyed themselves Several days before we had & we heared thay was comeing on us, we had appointed to take them the letter & just before he Started they came a mesage from them desireing too or three of our leading men to go & meet the too or three of there leading men & see if they compermise the matter, this was the verry thing that we wanted. So in the presance of there mesinger we elected thre men to go compermise with them. we also in the presance of there mesinger unanimously agreed to abide the treaty that our men Should make with them our thre men then Started fourth with to the place that they desired them to come to & thare they met with twelve or fourtee armed men. So the too partys began to counci the matter & Soon found that the difficulty that was between them was easy removed, that it was in consequence of false reports that had occasioned them to guether themselves to guether, they had heared that the mormons intended to come &C burn dow there houses, they Settled the difficulty without mutch trouble, the Misouriens was not willing to countunance Such conduct as this Steeling party was gilty of nor be called of that party So they would not associaiat with them, but agreed to use there enfluence to get them to come & compermise with us also & we was useing every effort that lay in our power to get on peasible terms with them when we thought that we had got the difficultys Settled with the greater part of them & was likely to Suceede in geting if while I was liveing near Hawns mills on Shoal Creek Mo and about the 25th or 26th of October 1838 I was informed that a company of mob of twenty in number under Nehemiah Cumstock had been to the mill and leveled pieces at those present demanding all their guns one man gave up his rifle another who had his gun in hand refused and started off two of the mob followed and snaped their guns at him twice or three times each one of these men I was told was Hiram Cumstock the other name I never learned though the man whom they were trying to shoot made his way off and gave word to the neighbor who met the next day at the mill to hear the story from the different families who informed us that the mob had sworn the burning of the neighbourhood and mill with the other hard threats such as killing Hiram Abbot who would not give up his gun we also learned that thare was another company of men lying below us at house of Mr McCrosky & knowing that either of those companies was far superior to ours in numbers some of the neighbours wanted to leave their homes and run off but haveing only about seven waggons to twenty three or four families we had to stay and defend our selves and as I recollect it was on the twenticighth of the month we conducted to offer them terms of peace but before our mesengers had started thare came one from the company below us with a request that we would send three men to the house of Oliver Walker to make a treaty with three men which they would send to the same house David Evans Jacob Myers seignior and Anthony Blackburn was chosen to meet them and on going to Walkers they met ten men with each a rifle instead of three without arms however peace prevailed and a treaty was soon made and agreed a pon I suppose to the satisfaction of both sides and on next day two of our men went back again those two were Evans and Ames they was told that the other company had sent a mesenger to Cumstock and his company with word of the treaty between us and them and also told them that we wanted to treat with them they said that Cumstocks company was not only mad with us but mad with them for making any kind of a treaty with us Evans sent them word that he wanted nothing but peace and would not fight them without offering them terms of peace I cannot tell whether or not they got the word or not but well I remember that on the thirtyeth of October about three o clock in the afternoon Cumstocks whole army of two hundred and fifty men came a pon us our company was about thirtyseven in number being joined by a company of families traveling to the other side of that County and the adjoining Counties stoped thare to get grinding at the mill Cumstocks company formed a kind of broken line at the distance of about seventyfive yards situating their horses in front for a kind of breastwork commenced a fire without passing a word meantime Capt Evans advanced toward them and called aloud for Quarters untill thev Fired I sppose between fifty and a hundred rounds with out any answer then we could do nomore than Fire afew shots while the women and children made their escape the mob still advancing came within about four or Five rods when I made my escape by flight being shot four times through the body and once across each arm being about the last man off the ground now I am well aware that this is an incredible story to tell that amman being shot four times through body made his escape by flight but I have the scare to show ten in number one ball entering my body through the inside comer of my left shoulder blade came outjust below about two and a half or three inches below my collar bone and as far as three inches on the right of the midle of my breast another entered through the muscle under the hind part of my left arm and passed through my body and came out under the middle of my right aim another passed through the my left hip on the inside or through the uper end of my hip bone another through my right hip hit the bone just about the joint glanced out through the skin and rolled down my drawers leg in to my boot these four balls made eight visible wounds with two others one across each arm are all the wounds in my flesh I cannot tell how many bullet holes was in my clothing thare was twentyseven in my shirt but to my story haveing made my own escape and hid my self I listened at them shooting the wounded which could not escape I was informed that one of these murderers followed old father McBride in his retreat and and cut him down with an old sythe while he was pleading for mercy this was seen by Mrs ames and two other ladies who were secreted under the creek bank Waren Smith and his Son was also shot a seccond time being unable to retreat after their first wounds Jacob Fouls and Wm. Champlin feined their selves dead and lay still untill their pockets were robed and after they supposd the wounded all were all dead they robed the houses took the horses from the mill and out of the stables and two waggons from the mill and off they went for the night but on the first or seccond of Nov they returned and camped at the mill robed that plundered the neighbourhood taking offsuch things as they pleased mob law being established in this band ofrobers murderers and thieves was Wm. Man Esq. N. Cumstock Esq Howard Maupin Jesse Maupin James and Stephan Reynolds called Runnels Hiram Cumstock a young man named Glase Erasmus Severe Jacob Rodgers Robert White George Miller Sardis Smith Elijah Trosper these men came on painted black trimed of with red rags and ribbands screming like so many demons enough to disgrace a heathen forest much more a land of liberty after some spend in this manner captain went to Richmond to draw pay for his service I was told that instead of pay they gave him a cursing and threatened him with justice throwing the murder and robery in his teeth and orders to return the stolen property (thema] this made Cumstock mad and on his way home he passed the mill and stuck up an advertisement staling that the stolen property should be brought to his house and could be had by paying him for taking care of hit some of the property was got and I have seen some of the horses that was worked [—] to death and rode nearly down but some of the best of them could not be found for asmall reward and one of the mob was going round trying to buy the chance of such they being about the best that was taken the names of the murdered Benjamin LewisJohn YorkJohn Lee, John Byers, Wm Napier, Warren Smith, Austin Hammer, Simon Cox, Levi Merick, Elias Benner, George Richards, — Campbell, Josiah Fuller,Thomas McBride, Sardis Smith a little boy. wounded Tariton Lewis, Jacob Fonts, Jacob Myers, Jacob Hawn, Jacob Potts, Isaac Leany, Wm Yocum, Nathan Night, — Walker(not related), Charles Jimison, Alma Smith a little boy, Mary Steadwell, Hiram Abbot, Charles Merick a boy mortally wounded this I will support in any court of justice.” --------- Abraham Palmer’s testimony in a Mormon Redress Petition, sworn to before J. Adams. J.P., Sangamon Co., IL, 9 Nov 1839. “Abraham Palmer of Springfield Sangamon County State of Illinois says he is a member of the Church of Latter day Saints commonly called Mormons and that he moved into the State of Missouri in October 1838 and proceeded with his family in a waggon as far as Caldwell County where he arrived two days before the Massacre of the Mormons at Haun's Mill he stopped at a Mr Walkers about four miles from the said Mill where he remained in his waggon with his family in company with six other waggons of his brethren untill after the Massacre The next day after the aforesaid outrage a company of the mob came to him and brethren and said if you will deny your faith you can live with us in peace but if you will not you must leave the Country forthwith on pain of death for we will exterminate all of you that do not deny your faith men women and children. The above proposition was made by a man who had previously assisted in plundering our waggons he called his name Austin and Styled himself Captain of the Livingston County Spies.” Abraham Palmer ---------- Reuben Naper testimony in a Mormon Redress Petition, testimony in a Mormon Redress Petition, sworn to before D. H. Wells, Hancock county, Illinois, 3 January 1840: “I Certify that I lived near Hauns Mill about three months. On Tuesday the thirtieth day of October being absent from home at the House of Mr Walker, while their a man came up and told us that the mob had come to the Mill and that they had Shown no Quarter, and that they intended to Sweep Shoal Creek. That evening I Started to go to the mill and proceeded Some distance I met Some Families in the Woods who had fled from the Slaughter they persuaded me not to go any further that night So I Consented to Stay with them. We all Slept in the Woods that night without any beds or any thing to Cover us wilh excepting two women who had brought Each of them a quilt. The next morning I pursued my Journey and went I got to the Mill I met my Mother and the rest of the family I asked them if my Father was dead. They told me to go and look into the Shop I immediately went to the Shop and Saw Seven men and one boy lying dead amongst whom was my Father who was shot through the head and through the heart Three more I found lay dead near the Shop and Several more reached Some houses and Soon afterwards died, in all there were Eighteen killed Sixteen men and two boys.” --------- James H. Rollins recalls: “Col George M Hinkle ordered 50 men to go and relieve or guard them, but only our 10 volunteered to go for we were determined to go and help our brethren. As we rode across the square, Joseph the Prophet came out of George Robertson's house, where David Patten and Obanion lay dead. He came out without hat or coat and stopped us, asking us where we were going. We told him we were going to Haun's Mill. He told us that we were his men and we must not go if we did go against his advice and council there would not be one us left to tell the tale tomorrow morning. He was very pale, and white. He said, 'Go and put up your horses and help us to bury these two brethren.' And we did just as he told us." 4 September - Evaline Walker daughter of Oliver Walker marries James Henry Rollins on Shoal Creek, 4 miles from Haun's Mill just four days after the massacre there. 29 September - "...the camp (Kirtland Caravan) passed through Chilicothe the county seat of Livingston County, they traveled up the side of the Grand River and crossed the river near the small village of Utica. After crossing Shoal Creek, they camped on the west bank, fifteen miles inside the border of Caldwell County, “on the farm of Oliver Walker, who gave each family a pumpkin and plenty of shelled beans. Today we felt like we had arrived in Zion." --------- Trial At Richmond Jail according to James Henry Rollins "About 11 o'clock the Prophet Joseph and Hyrum were brought into the court department, which was situated on the same floor where we were kept. A pole stretched across, kept us back from Judge King and his court. I stood close to this pole at the back of Joseph and Hyrum and the Lawyers Donaphan and Atchison. A man was brought in as witness against me by the name of Odel, who testified that I had burned his house. I spoke openly, as I stood behind Joseph and Hyrum, that he was a curly headed liar. Joseph turned his head and said "Shaw, Henry dont say anything." This saying caused some commotion in the court room. What was done about it I don't remember. We were kept prisoners for several weeks. At last was agreed that we could bail each other out. One of the brethren bailing another. Sometimes one would go bail for 3 or 4 of the brethren until they were all bailed out but myself. Isaac Allred haveing agreed to bail me previous to this, but did not. I got one of the guards to go with me and find him. I asked him about it, he said he couldn't do it as he had bailed out four or five. I was taken back and kept under guard until evening, when I learned my young wife (Evaline Walker) had come to see me from Lewiston, where she was left among strangers all this time. Donaphan and the Lawyers took me to Gudgell hotel to see her and when I got to the hotel they said I should stay there that night, which I did in a very small room 6 by 8, with 2 guards inside lying with their heads against the door. I was very sick that night, my wife was obliged to go out over the guards bed, to hunt the nurse to get some medicine for the relief of my pain. The guard was determined not to let he go out, when my brother-in-law said, "0, let her go." My brother-in-law was one of the mob. The next morning at breakfeast they set me and my wife at the head of the table, all eyes were turned upon us. About 10 o'clock in the day I succeeded in obtaining bail. My bail was fixed for all these crimes and was signed by the nortorious Boguard, Methosist preacher, and Nathaniel Carr, my brother-in-law. Soon after this was settled, I obtained a horse, sadle and bridal and started with my wife on the same horse to Far West 35 miles distant. It was quite cold and we had to ride and run alternately until we arrived at Far West in the night safely. We had not been home long, before Boguard appeared in Far West and exacted my stepfather's hotel, my father-in-laws hundred acres ofl and and 40 acres of my own land, and at least a thousand dollars worth of other property to secure for the five hundred dollars, or he would take me back to jail. Some of the land that be wanted lay 3 miles from Haun's Mill and I had not heard whether my wife's Father would consent to Boguard's requirements. About this time my wife's brother William Walker brought a horse saddle and bridal and Portmanteau and told me to take the horse and skip. Boguard that evening, took me up stairs and told me if I didn't produce those men to go my security the next day, he would take me back to jail. That night I saddled the horse, my mother giving me sixteen dollars to start with. C L Higby and myself started together. The young people of Far West had gathered at a house a half mile out of town to bid us goodbye. After Crossing the Mississippi River "I crossed the river and got into upper Alton at 9 o'clock at night, having ridden the same horse three hundred and fifty miles in 5 days. Finding my brother-in- law (John Walker] there. I found a home and resting place." Which was lucky as he was soon "taken with a billious colic...1 was several days in a very bad condition, but hearing about this time that Boguard was in puisuit of me, I saddled my horse and rodes some 60 miles into Magovin Co," where he split rails for several days, but upon recieving a warning in his sleep, that "Your wife Evalin is in Alton, if you want to see her; hurry." (He immediately heads back to Alton, but is greatly puzzled by the queer advances a mysterious stranger makes towards him in a Tavern where he stops to warm himself. Arriving at Alton, "worn out for sleep and very weary," he asks a boy if his wife is there. The boy answers, "Yes, she is very bad at her brother John Walker's house," adding, "If you want to see her alive, hurry." "There I found my warning true in every sense, as the doctor and women were just putting my wife in bed when I arrived. She had been expected to die for days previous to this. A few days after my return she began to recover. I soon rented a house, and my family and William Walker's family moved together into the house. ..Soon after this Adam Lightner and wife (James' sister) returned from Louisville, Kentucky and lived in the same house also, it being a very large one, where we remained during the summer. "I then moved to Clifton 6 miles above Alton where we found a house empty, large enough for 3 or 4 families to live in. We here determined to build a large flat boat for carrying wood to Alton and St Louis. This boat we constructed during the winter, ..which we finished in the spring and loaded it with wood for St Louis. The trip we made successfully. We paid 29 dollars to a Steam boat in St Louis to tow it up to our landing place. After making another trip to St Louis, I disposed with my share of the boat to my other partners, and myself and wife went 1840 to Alton, and boarded the steamer Austria and set sail for Montrose in Iowa, opposite Nauvoo." 1839 Joseph Smith and other church leaders escape imprisonment, and begin the settlement of Nauvoo, Illinois. Horace M Alexander is in upper Alton, Madison County, Illinois. He remains there until after March 1841 1840 With the influx of Mormons, Nauvoo becomes the largest city in Illinois. 13 January - Horace M. Alexander, J.H. Rollins, John R and William C Walker write redress petitions in Madison County, Illinois. The church encouraged members to address these petitions to the U. S. Congress in an attempt to bring attention to the plight of the Mormon refugees. There was probably never much hope that Congress would compensate the displaced Mormons, but it was no doubt disappointing that Congress failed to register any moral outrage over what had happened in Missouri, and simply ignored the petitions. January 13,1840 To the honorables Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled at Washington City in the D.C. I the undersigned by these resent Reprisents To Your Honorable Body My Losses & Sufferings that I sustained from the hands of a Mob in the State of Missouri in The Year 1838. .. and This may Certify while on a Journey To In. My family were Left in far west at the Time of the oppression By the Mob they were not Permitted To Leave their Homes To get Bread, and Therefore nearly Perishd for want of food &C. and further say that the Losses which I sustained of Real and personal property To be no Less than 1500 dollars, further was obliged to Leave the State to save my life and was obliged to Leave my family To suffer for about 4 Months H. M. Alexander {Sworn to before J. H. Randle, N., Madison Co., IL, 13 Jan 1840.) WALKER, John R. Alton January 13,1840 To the Honorable House of the Senate & Representatives in Congress Assembled at the City of Washington And District of Columbia I the undersigned do by these presents represent To You my Losses and Sufferings in the State of Missouri in the Year 183(8]. &C by the Hands of a mob who pillaged and destroyed my Goods &C. &C. in Jackson and Caldwell Countys and Which Losses I Certify To be no Less than Five Hundred Dollars further that I suffered many Injuries from this mob By Breaking in my Windows By Thrusting Long Poles Through at My family and Driving them from their Habitation. John R. Walker {Sworn to before J. H. Randle, N.P.. Madison Co., IL, 13 Jan 1840. WALKER, William C. Alton January 13.1840 To the honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled at the City of Washington District of Columbia I The Undersigned do by these presents Represent To You my Losses And Suffering in the Stole of Missouri in the Year 1838 By the Hands of the Mob in that State who Distroyed and pillaged My Goods & Chattels and drove me and my family from my home. And do Certify my Loss of property To be no Less than Six Hundred Dollars Wm C. Walker {Sworn to before J. H. Randle. N.P., Madison Co.. IL, 13 Jan 1840. ROLLINS, James H. January 13.1840 To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled at the City of Washington in the district of Columbia—1 the undersignd do by these presents represent To Your Honorable body my Losses Sufferings and Troubles which I sustained and underwent by the hands of a Ruthless mob in the State of Missouri upheld and sustained by L. W. Boggs acting Governor of that state in the Year 1838. And this may Certify that on the 6th day of August, 1838. while at an Election held in daviess County Missouri, while we the people Called Mormons were Voting As the Law of our Country dictates and Guarantees unto us that we were hindred from this our privilege By a mob of the people of that County Raising against us and driving us from the polls with Clubs Raw Hydes &C. [—j Also drove us from the Town and Threatened me If I did not Leave the Town They would Pull down my House over my Head. and which House Contained heavy stones &C &C, and which I was obliged To Leave, and which was mostly distroyed. Also [—] Another Establishment of the same in same County was Broken Open and Liquor & C. Taken Out By the Milita as they Called Themselves under Brgd. Genl. Parks of that Division To a Large amt. and which they Took and made use of&C. Many other Losses which I suffered which were very grievious To bear of Being driven from Land which I Had Entd. Town Lots &C. And the Loss of which Property Amounting To not less than 3000 Dollars which Loss I sustained By being driven from my Home under The Exterminatig Orders of his Excellency Lilbern W. Boggs. And By this I appeal To Your Honorable Body for redress of the sore Grievances which I And my Brethren have suffered for the Belief of the scriptures of Truth or in other words for our Religion.— And By this I importune at Your feet for Redress &C of My Wrongs And Your Servant will Ever pray. James H. Rollins P. S. I The undersigned Certify in addition That We the people Called Mormons after a Conference was held by The principal men of the Mo. Militia, was forced by the Point of the sword To sign a deed of Trust signing away our Lands. The principal man Engaged in this business was Thomas Birch Acting as States Attorney for that district, also Genl. Clark Commander in Chief of the Militia or also Genl. Sarni. D. Lucas of Independence Jackson County Mo. James H. Rollins {Sworn to before J. H. Randle. N.P.. Madison Co., IL. 13 Jan 1840.] -------- 11 October - Trial of Oliver Walter before the Nauvoo High Council David Fulmer preferred a charge against Oliver Walker "for reporting certain slanderous stories of a fallacious and calumniating nature, calculated to stigmatize, and raise a persecution against the Church and individuals in it, in this place, [Nauvoo], and for other acts of unchristianlike conduct," before the High Council at Nauvoo. The defendant pleaded that "he was not prepared to meet the charge, it being too indefinite." Council adjourned till next day. Sunday, 11 Oct-High Council met according to adjournment. The charge against Oliver Walker was taken up, and the following substituted for the first charge: Minutes of the High Council. To the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ at Nauvoo: For and in behalf of said Church, I prefer a charge against Elder Oliver Walker, for several different offenses hereinafter set forth, as said to be by him done, performed, said, and committed, as well as various duties omitted, all of which was done at different times, periods, places, and seasons, subsequent to September lst, A.D. 1838, to-wit.: For a general course of procedure, of acts, doings, and words, and suggestions by him, the said Elder Oliver Walker, done, performed, said, spoken, hinted at, and suggested, both directly and indirectly, and as calculated to be derogatory to the character of the heads and leaders of the Church, and extremely injurious and hurtful to the upbuilding, welfare, being, and advancement of the same, namely, for fleeing from, quitting, and deserting the society, ranks, and needs of his brethren, in times of difficulty with, and danger from their enemies, "the mob," restraining from the use of his brethren, his influence, efforts, and needful assistance, at such times of need; as also for joining with, and strengthening the hands, will, evil pursuits, and designs of the mob, and Gentile enemies of the Church, by expressions, hints, and suggestions of wavering and dubious nature, respecting the faith and. order of the Church, and of the professed calling, qualifications, proceeding, &c., of Joseph Smith, Jun., as a Seer, Prophet, and one called to bring to light the fullness of the Gospel, &c., in these last days. Likewise for advancing ideas, notions, or opinions, that the different orders or sects, namely, Methodists and others, could by a pursuit in their faith, order, and pursuits, as readily obtain every celestial attainment and Gospel advantage, as they could by embracing and pursuing the system brought forth by Joseph Smith, Jun., in these last days. And moreover for suggesting within the last six months, at Alton, Nauvoo, intermediate and adjacent places, that in the Church at Nauvoo there did exist a set of pilferers, who were actually thieving, robbing plundering, taking and unlawfully carrying away from Missouri, certain and chattels, wares and property; and that the act and acts of such suppose thieving, &c., was fostered and conducted by the knowledge and approbation of the heads and leaders of the Church, viz., by the Presidency and High Council; all of which items set forth as aforesaid, together with any and all corroborating acts, doings, hints, expressions, and suggestions in any way belonging to, or connected with, any or all of the aforesaid accusations, he, the said Oliver Walker, is hereby notified to prepare to defend in said trial. Dated October 11, 1840, Nauvoo. David Fulmer. Walker pleaded that he was not prepared to defend himself, and the trial was deferred till April conference. No further reference to a trial has been found to date. 1841Horace M Alexander is in Nauvoo, Illinois, 2nd Ward 184212 August - William Walker rides Joseph Smith's horse Joe Duncan across the Mississippi River to give the impression that Joseph Smith had crossed over to the Iowa side. 6 December - Arrest warrant signed Nauvoo, Illinois, by Joseph Smith for the arrest of Amos Davis accused of assault and battery on William C Walker. The Trials of Amos Davis & the assault on William C Walker. Wednesday, Nov 30, 1842.--Morning, in counsel in the large assembly room preparing evidence in the case of bankruptcy. Afternoon, had Amos Davis brought before the municipal court for slander; but, in consequence of the informality of the writ drawn by Squire Daniel H. Wells, I (Joseph Smith) was non-suited. Friday, Dec 2.--Sat as Mayor on trial of Amos Davis, who was fined in the sum of $25 for breach of city ordinance for selling spirits by the small quantity. Saturday, Dec 3.-- In the afternoon, attended the municipal court in the case of Amos Davis, for breach of city ordinance, &c... Monday, (Dec) 5.--In the morning, attended in council with Brother Hyrum and others on bankruptcy, making an inventory of our property, and schedule of our liabilities, that we might be prepared to avail ourselves of the laws of the land as did others. Afternoon, had conversation with Brother Green. In the evening, attended the Masonic Lodge. Tuesday, (Dec) 6.--Attended the trial of an appealed case of Amos Davis before the municipal court. Judgment confirmed. From the Journal History of the Church There is no mention of the warrant issued against Davis for Assaulting William C Walker. It is not at all clear what the issues involved here were. Did Davis assault Walker? Levi Hancock stationed William C. Walker at the door of a Mormon meeting in Winchester, Indiana to discourage the townspeople from following through on threats to disrupt it. It is a job that is usual given to someone who through looks or reputation inspires a fear of retribution in others.. That was in 1831, perhaps Walker had lost some of his intimidating qualities in eleven years, or was Davis, perhaps even more intimidating, or just foolhardy and reckless. Justice in Nauvoo was very often tightly controlled and rather loosely defined. Joseph Smith, and the Nauvoo City Council were at that very moment rewriting the definition of habeas corpus to deflect legal attempts to extradite Smith to Missouri for trial in the murder attempt on ex-Governor Boggs. Was there more to the Davis case than just selling spirits by small quantities, in other words, by the drink. 184313 April - Oliver Walker dies in Nauvoo, Illinois. 25 June - H M Alexander is part of a party to prevent the kidnapping of Joseph Smith. 15 October - Dionitia Alexander, daughter of H M Alexander & Nancy Walker Alexander, is born at Nauvoo, III. Diontha Walker, daughter of Oliver & Nancy Walker marries Amasa M Lyman" in Nauvoo 1844-5 Joseph and his brother Hymm are murdered by a mob at the Carthage Jail. The church is left leaderless, prompting an internal struggle for control of the church, while increasing antagonism makes it clear that the Mormons will be forced to leave Illinois. Plans to migrate west are announce in September 1845, while the Temple is rushed to completion. 1846 The first group of Mormons begins the exodus from Nauvoo, crossing the frozen Mississippi River in February. A string of settlements is established to facilitate the exodus. Main camps are established at Council Bluffs and Winter Quarters, where there is much suffering the first winter. 6 Feb Nancy Cressy Walker, widow of Oliver Walker is sealed to Oliver Walker, and married for life to Bringham Young at Nauvoo. Accompanying the initial evacuation of Nauvoo part way across Iowa, near Richardson's Point, Henry Rollins was ordered by Bringham Young to return to Nauvoo for his own family. After crossing back into Nauvoo Rollins relates, "that day I went to work to trade my horses for oxen. I succeeded, after much trouble, in obtaining 3 yoke of young oxen. I then took my family and effects and found Horace Alexander and family, with no team to draw their wagon. I furnished my best yoke of oxen to draw their wagon and family and pursued our journey toward Council Bluffs with Hector Haight, their father and others. " --------- Horace M Alexander is member of the Mormon Battalion. Corporal, Company B. In July 1846, under the authority of U.S. Army Captain James Allen and with the encouragement of Mormon leader Brigham Young, the Mormon Battalion was mustered in at Council Bluffs, Iowa Territory. The battalion was the direct result of Brigham Young's correspondence on 26 January 1846 to Jesse C. Little, presiding elder over the New England and Middle States Mission. Young instructed Little to meet with national leaders in Washington, D.C., and to seek aid for the migrating Latter-day Saints, the majority of whom were then in the Iowa Territory. In response to Young's letter, Little journeyed to Washington, arriving on 21 May 1846, just eight days after Congress had declared war on Mexico. Little met with President James K. Polk on 5 June 1846 and urged him to aid migrating Mormon pioneers by employing them to fortify and defend the West. The president offered to aid the pioneers by permitting them to raise a battalion of five hundred men, who were to join Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, Commander of the Army of the West, and fight for the United States in the Mexican War. Little accepted this offer. Colonel Kearny designated Captain James Allen, later promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, to raise five companies of volunteer soldiers from the able-bodied men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five in the Mormon encampments in Iowa. On 26 June 1846 Allen arrived at the encampment of Mt. Pisgah. He was treated with suspicion as many believed that the raising of a battalion was a plot to bring trouble to the migrating Saints. Allen journeyed from Mt. Pisgah to Council Bluffs, where on 1 July 1846 he allayed Mormon fears by giving permission for the Saints to encamp on United States lands if the Mormons would raise the desired battalion. Brigham Young accepted this, recognizing that the enlistment of the battalion was the first time the government had stretched forth its arm to aid the Mormons. On 16 July 1846 some 543 men enlisted in the Mormon Battalion. From among these men Brigham Young selected the commissioned officers; they included Jefferson Hunt, Captain of Company A; Jesse D. Hunter, Captain of Company B; James Brown, Captain of Company C; Nelson Higgins, Captain of Company D; and Daniel C. Davis, Captain of Company E. Among the most prominent non-Mormon military officers immediately associated with the battalion march were Lt. Col. James Allen, First Lt. Andrew Jackson Smith, Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke, and Dr. George Sanderson. Also accompanying the battalion were approximately thirty-three women, twenty of whom served as laundresses, and fifty-one children. The battalion marched from Council Bluffs on 20 July 1846, arriving on 1 August 1846 at Fort Leavenworth (Kansas), where they were outfitted for their trek to Santa Fe. Battalion members drew their arms and accoutrements, as well as a clothing allowance of forty-two dollars, at the fort. Since a military uniform was not mandatory, many of the soldiers sent their clothing allowances to their families in the encampments in Iowa.. The march from Fort Leavenworth was delayed by the sudden illness of Colonel Allen. Capt. Jefferson Hunt was instructed to begin the march to Santa Fe; he soon received word that Colonel Allen was dead. Allen's death caused confusion regarding who should lead the battalion to Santa Fe. Lt. A.J. Smith arrived from Fort Leavenworth claiming the lead, and he was chosen the commanding officer by the vote of battalion officers. The leadership transition proved difficult for many of the enlisted men, as they were not consulted about the decision. Smith and his accompanying surgeon, a Dr. Sanderson, have been described in journals as the "heaviest burdens" of the battalion. Under Smith's dictatorial leadership and with Sanderson's antiquated prescriptions, the battalion marched to Santa Fe. On this trek the soldiers suffered from excessive heat, lack of sufficient food, improper medical treatment, and forced long-distance marches. The first division of the Mormon Battalion approached Santa Fe on 9 October 1846. Their approach was heralded by Col. Alexander Doniphan, who ordered a one-hundred-gun salute in their honor. At Santa Fe, Smith was relieved of his command by Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke. Cooke, aware of the rugged trail between Santa Fe and California and also aware that one sick detachment had already been sent from the Arkansas River to Fort Pueblo in Colorado, ordered the remaining women and children to accompany the sick of the battalion to Pueblo for the winter. Three detachments consisting of 273 people eventually were sent to Pueblo for the winter of 1846-47. The remaining soldiers, with four wives of officers, left Santa Fe for California on 19 October 1846. They journeyed down the Rio Grande del Norte and eventually crossed the Continental Divide on 28 November 1846. While moving up the San Pedro River in present-day Arizona, their column was attacked by a herd of wild cattle. In the ensuing fight, a number of bulls were killed and two men were wounded. Following the "Battle of the Bulls," the battalion continued their march toward Tucson, where they anticipated a possible battle with the Mexican soldiers garrisoned there. At Tucson, the Mexican defenders temporarily abandoned their positions and no conflict ensued. On 21 December 1846 the battalion encamped on the Gila River. They crossed the Colorado River into California on 9 and 10 January 1847. By 29 January 1847 they were camped at the Mission of San Diego, about five miles from General Kearny's quarters. That evening Colonel Cooke rode to Kearny's encampment and reported the battalion's condition. On 30 January 1847 Cooke issued orders enumerating the accomplishments of the Mormon Battalion. "History may be searched in vain for an equal march of infantry. Half of it has been through a wilderness where nothing but savages and wild beasts are found, or deserts where, for lack of water, there is no living creature." During the remainder of their enlistment, some members of the battalion were assigned to garrison duty at either San Diego, San Luis Rey, or Ciudad de los Angeles. Other soldiers were assigned to accompany General Kearny back to Fort Leavenworth. All soldiers, whether en route to the Salt Lake Valley via Pueblo or still in Los Angeles, were mustered out of the United States Army on 16 July 1847. Eighty-one men chose to reenlist and serve an additional eight months of military duty under Captain Daniel C. Davis in Company A of the Mormon Volunteers. The majority of the soldiers migrated to the Salt Lake Valley and were reunited with their pioneering families. The men of the Mormon Battalion are honored for their willingness to fight for the United States as loyal American citizens. Their march of some 2,000 miles from Council Bluffs to California is one of the longest military marches in history. Their participation in the early development of California by building Fort Moore in Los Angeles, building a courthouse in San Diego, and making bricks and building houses in southern California contributed to the growth of the West. Following their discharge, many men helped build flour mills and sawmills in northern California. Some of them were among the first to discover gold at Sutter's Mill. Men from Captain Davis's Company A were responsible for opening the first wagon road over the southern route from California to Utah in 1848 1847The first wagon company leaves Winter Quarters for an uncertain destination in the Rocky Mountains. The Mormon Battalion had marched to California by way of Santa Fe, New Mexico the Previous summer. Bringham Young is sustained as the leader of the church. January - Nancy Reader Walker Alexander, and H.M. Alexander jr die at Winter Quarters, Nebraska. After her death the surviving children, along with the 15 year old orphan Catharine Houston, who lived with the Alexander family, and cared for the dying mother and children, are taken in by Nancy's sister Evaline, the wife of James Henry Rollins. The remnants of the Alexander family, and Catharine Houston migrate with the Rollins family in Bringham Young's 1848 company. Winter Quarters, Nebraska James H Rollins leaves us this account of the first winter at Winter Quarters. "When many of us crossed the river swimming our cattle across, which was a very perilous job. But we finally succeeded in this without the loss of a single animal. We went across to the cold spring...a mile or so from the crossing of the river. We remained there on a ridge until a suitable place was found. We all camped on this ridge in a string facing the south. A council was soon held at this place when it was determined for all the men that were able to go to cutting hay and stacking it up for winter use, which we accomplished in due time. After this time it was decided to all move to Winter Quarters, the place that was picked out by the President Bringham Young and council—We then commenced to build houses and dugouts in the side of the hill. I went with the company up the river some few miles, cut and rafted cottonwood logs down to Winter Quarters...I also cut logs and built a house for the wife and family of my brother-in-law, Horace Alexander, who had gone as one of the five hundred that were called to Mexico in the Battalion and they were left in my charge during his absence, and through the winter his wife took sick and died. There were 3 other children left in my care. In about a week her infant also died. I procure a box for it, and two of us carried it up the hill where we had laid its mother. We opened the grave and placed its little coffin on the mother's.” --------- March 23. During Fremont's absence, Lt. Colonel Cooke arrived in Los Angeles with one company of dragoons and four of the Mormon Battalion, including H M. Alexander to establish his headquarters there. 28 April - Company B, Mormon Battalion at San Diego. "Henry Bigler commented on 'something of a human for," who was seen on the streets of San Diego begging for food. He claimed to be one of Fremont's men and said he had been traveling in the Rocky Mountains for years. One of his shoulders was disabled and he had a wound in his head. Horace M Alexander recognized him from Missouri. The man acknowledged that he was one of the mob who massacred the saints at Haun's mill in Missouri. He begged for foregiveness. (Crocket, David, Saints Find the Place. LDS-Gems series vol 3) 28 June - "Today I was detailed to assist in building an oven in the city (Los Angeles). Col Stevenson returned today from San Diego, accompanied by Capt. Alexander, 24 of the brethren at that post had given their names to enlist again for six months on condition. “ 4 July - San Diego. "On the 4th of July, the roar of cannon at daybreak announced the seventieth annivesary of our nation's birth. Henry W Bigler's diary of the date. "These demonstrations pleased the citizens so well that they brought out all the wine and brandy we wanted and a hundred times more. In the evening, Captain Jesse D Hunter and Colonel Stevenson, with Sargent Hyde and Corporal Horace M. Alexander, who had been to Los Angeles, arrived and were heartily cheered. 16 July - H.M. Alexander is discharged at Pueblo de Los Angeles, California. He immediately heads for Salt Lake Valley by way of Sacramento and Donner Pass, arriving at Salt Lake about October 16. 1848 8 January: "Took up an appeal from Bishop Foutz by H M Alexander, case of H M Alexander vs John Bouk for non-delivery of an ox...Lyman Leonard and Daniel Spencer speakers for Plaintiff and John Murdock and Lewis Abbot for Defendant. After the case was folly traversed, Charles C Rich decided that Brother Bouk deliver the ox in question with his mate and the yoke ring and stuple belonging to them, to Brother Alexander within one week. Decission voted." Minutes of the High Council, Salt Lake City, Albert Camngton, Clerk. 20 July - H.M. Alexander travels as an express to the wagon train on the Prairie near Chimney Rock in the company with Orrin P Rockwell etc. Presumably meets up with his family and returns with the train to the Valley. "On July 20 John D Lee wrote: 'About 10 met an express from the vally to the Camp at Head Quarters carried by O.P. Rockwell, Horace Alexander, Lewis Robinson & [Scofield]. They brought first rate news from the Land that the crops were promising." "Lee evidently did not know the name of the fourth messenger, but the next day learned it, for about noon he wrote: '...L. Robinson, Alexander, Lewis Robinson, & Quincy Scofield, Messengers, returned [from visiting the rear emigration. Q. Scofield rather concluded to drive Teams to the valley for Capt. Perkins, the other 2 with 0 P Rockwell to go to the valley. "On July 20 Rockwell and three companions, Lewis Robison, Quincy Scofield, and Horace Alexander, jogged into "Separation Encampment" (so named by John D. Lee), about forty miles west of Scott's Bluff, and met Lee's company preparing to ford the Platte. After sharing lunch at the Lee table, the four men mounted and galloped to the group commanded by Brigham Young at the rear of the lengthy caravan. During his conversation with the church leader, Rockwell learned for the first time that Young had been named "prophet, seer and revelator" of the church at a conference session in Iowa on December 27, 1847. Brigham Young's succession to the highest position in the church, vacant since the death of Joseph Smith, was a mere formality. He had been the recognized leader of the Mormons since the martyrdom. This new action, however, once again created a First Presidency, with Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards as Young's counselors." "Rockwell and the three who had ridden with him from the valley rejoined Lee's company the following morning. It was decided that Quincy Scofield would stay behind and drive a team while the others rode ahead as scouts. For the next two weeks Rockwell, Robison, and Alexander scanned the plains until their eyes ached, always alert for a sudden attack by Indians. When a relief train from the valley brought extra oxen to the emigrants, Young busied himself in doling the animals out to those who needed them the most. Here occurred an incident indicative of his absolute authority over the Saints. John D. Lee described it this way; Pres. B.Y. at 8 o'clock the morning before [August 5] stopped a co. that [was] in possession [of] several yoke of cattle, converted to their own use, that had been sent from the valley for the benefit of the cos. at the discretion of Pres. B.Y. Said to the man that the cattle were the Lord's & that he was Boss of these Prairies & would dictate the Teams & see that the poor were not left behind & that he had from three to 4 yoke of la[r]ge cattle on his wagons, when there were many wagons of the same size & weight with one yoke & perhaps a yoke of cows. This is not equality, neither is it bearing each other['s] burden. . . . I am not willing to have you go ahead with more team then what is necessary . . ." "Marking an easier ford across the Platte, Rockwell pushed ahead to meet a party of Saints coming to help the new arrivals through the mountain passes between Fort Bridger and the valley. Rockwell briefed their captain) Isaac Haight, on the relative position of the approaching companies, then raced back with word that relief was on the way. He found the Mormons fighting thirst, mountain fever, and bad weather. The added hardships seemed only to increase Brigham Young's determination to reach the valley straightaway, and he refused to slacken the pace. When fever claimed one of Lee's wives, Young would not permit burial to slow the train down. Wrote Lee, "About 2 P.M. Squire Wills [Daniel H. Wells], 0. P. Rockwell & G. D. Grant was sent by Pres. B.Y. to see if J. D. Lee wanted help & insisted on his rolling out the next morning. " By September 15 the Mormons were four days from the valley; Rockwell stayed with Young's company's and entered Great Salt Lake City on September 20 to the cheers of the population which had turned out to greet the emigrants. There now were more than two thousand Saints in Zion. " (from Schindler, Harold. Orrin Porter Rockwell:Man of God, Son of Thunder The following account of crossing the plains is provided by James Henry Rollins, who cared for the surviving children of Horace Martin Alexander and Nancy R Walker Alexander. When the company started from Winter Quarters to cross the plains; Bringham Young being the leader of the Company, started ahead with his company, then Amasa Lyman’s company of a hundred wagons, then Dr. Richards the most of his company English, with Joseph Horn as Captain of the hundred in this company. The second day out we camped on the Little Horn river where we stayed two or three days, then resuming our journey to the loop fork of the Platte river when we crossed on the other side, which was very difficult to cross. Dr Richards and Company arrived on the side we had left, when it was determined to help with our lead Oxen to cross them over on the same side of the river as we were, which was accomplished that day, no accident happening to them. We remained there until the next day or two then started early for the main Platte river, 20 miles distant and when we arrived at the Platte both Dr. Richards and Amasa Lyman were taken very sick. We remained there 2 days. I killed 4 antelope on the Sunday we laid over. Our next move was up the Platte towards Fort Laramie to which place we arrived in due time. We stopped one or two days previous to reaching Laramie to hunt, as Buffaloes were quite plentiful, and supplied ourselves with meat, killing 3 buffaloes myself that day, and another which brother Flake had down. We were obliged to shoot two bulls in order to get the cow that he had killed. As we were skinning the cow, another cow had made its appearance coming down a ravine near us. I took aim and shot it, it turned, and went up the bluff. About this time brother Horn came to us and said his company had not killed anything. We told him to take the loins and hump and as much more as he wanted, out of the two bulls and go up on the bluff and. he would find a cow that he might have for his company, which he found to be very fat. We then, the next day resumed our journey towards Laramie and came to an Indian Village. . There were many tents made of buffalo hides. They impeded our progress, stopped our train by squatting in the road. They demanded pay of us for the water and grass our company had used. And the chief said, "We want you to give us flour, sugar, coffee, powder and lead." The captains of each 10 were set to work to get from the wagons these articles. The chief spreading his large buffalo robe, on which the contributions were emptied. We then asked them if they were satisfied, they said "Yes if you will give us a little more powder." They were told that we hadn't it to spare, the Indians then removed, the contents of the buffalo skin and said we could pass on our journey, and we were not troubled any more until we reached Laramie Fort, where we stopped. our train. Many Indians were there with the French who kept the Fort. The Frenchman told us not to sell the Indians any whiskey, which of course we did not do, but to sell it to them if we had any and, they would pay us a big price. Those who had it to sell, sold it to the French at a dollar a pint. Banters were out by the Indians for a horse race, and Nathan Tanner ran his horse with the Indians and beat him. Then they wanted to give him a larger horse which brother Tanner needed, and the trade was made. About this time while our people were trading for Buffalo skins, the Indian Chief was discovered to be drunk and seemed very mad as he walked through with tomyhawk in hand he cut many gashes through buffalo skins which hung on the banisters. He was watched by his squaws and one or two of the French men and taken and bound and laid away. We then resumed our journey after obtaining many buffalo skins until we came to the three crossings of Sweet Water. We camped for 2 or 3 days for the women to wash. We killed quite a number of mountain sheep and buffaloes. After 3 or 4 days we continued our journey up Sweet Water. I killed on Sweet Water, as we traveled up the stream so 20 antelope and 11 of their hides and took them to Salt Lake City and there tanned them. When we came to Pacific Springs we camped for one day. The next day we started for Bear River which we crossed safely by raising our wagon beds with blocks to keep the water from running into them. Then we resumed our way towards Green river and crossing the river we again raised our wagon boxes, and crossed without an accident. Then we wended our way over the mountains and arrived at Salt Lake some time in October being 5 months on the road from the time we started from Winter Quarters until we arrived in Salt Lake. All this I have written from memory. The records of our travels which I kept and delivered to our Captain were lost and could not be found, and at the time of this writing, I am eighty years and 6 months old. Many instances in our travels are not here related, such as losing our cattle many of them, the Indians stealing my son, who was recovered, and a daughter that was run over, but not seriously injured, and the death of Sidney Tanners little boy who fell from the wagon tongue and was instantly killed by the wagon running over his neck. He was buried near the road the same day. After arriving in Salt Lake I moved my wagon into the Old Fort, also that of Horace Alexander's family. I soon obtained a room in which we lived through the winter. In the spring I ploughed and planted about five acres of wheat, corn and some vegetable seed. James Henry Rollins 6 November - Horace M Alexander begins working for Madison Hamilton in Salt Lake City 1849 15 February - Horace M Alexander marries Catherine Houston and Martha Burnwell in Salt Lake City. 9 July - H. M. Alexander signs a “Proof of Evidence” document in Atchison county, Missouri, to the effect that he was a Private in Company B of the Mormon Battalion, and that he was discharged in the Pueblo de Los Angeles on 16 July 1847, and that he never received a certificate of discharge. Apparently he had to travel back to Missouri to sign this document in order to be eligible for 160 acres of land. 1850 Horace M Alexander is a member of the Salt Lake City police force from 1850-3, and lived in the city's 3rd Ward. 1853 4 October - Frances Evelyn Alexander, daughter of HMA and Nancy R Walker, marries Jesse P Steele at Salt Lake City. 1855 H M Alexander marries Julia Owens. H M Alexander is part of the Iron Mission and settles in Parowan, Utah. PAROWAN Southern Utah's first settlement and county seat of Iron County. An annual birthday celebration commemorates Parowan's founding on 13 January 1851, just twelve months after Parley P. Pratt and members of his exploring party discovered the Little Salt Lake Valley and nearby deposits of iron ore. On 8 January 1850 Pratt had raised a liberty pole at Heap's Spring and dedicated the site as "The City of Little Salt Lake." Based on Pratt's exploration report, Brigham Young called for the establishment of settlements in the area to produce much-needed iron implements for the pioneer state. Mormon apostle George A. Smith was appointed to head the establishment of this "Iron Mission" in 1850. The first company of 120 men, 31 women, and 18 children braved winter weather traveling south from Provo during December. They sometimes built roads and bridges as they traveled, and they finally reached Center Creek on 13 January 1851. After enduring two bitterly cold nights, they moved across the creek and circled their wagons by Heap's Spring and Pratt's liberty pole, seeking the protection of the hills. Within days, the settlement organization was completed: companies of men were dispatched to build a road up the canyon, a town site was surveyed and laid into lots, and a fort and a log council house were begun. The council house was used as church, schoolhouse, theater, and community recreation center for many years. In 1861 construction was begun on a large church building to stand in the center of the public square. The pioneers envisioned a building of three stories, built from the abundant yellow sandstone and massive timbers in nearby canyons. Known as the "Old Rock Church," the building was completed in 1867 and served as a place of worship, town council hall, school building, social hall, and tourist camp. It is now a museum of Parowan's early history. Parowan's first settlers were instructed to plant crops so that following immigrants could open up the coal and iron ore deposits, but local industries were also developed. Self-sufficiency was envisioned, and local industries included a tannery, sawmill, cotton mill, factories for making saddles and harnesses, furniture and cabinets, shoes, and guns; there also were both carpentry and blacksmith shops. The first attempts at iron manufacturing were unsuccessful, but mining in the twentieth century brought prosperity to Iron County 1858 H M Alexander is part of a panel convened by George A Smith in Parowan that clears William Dame of responsibility for the Mountain Meadow massacre. The official line on the massacre is established during this three day enquiry. See DAME Document Iron County, Utah Alexander Horace 38 M Farmer 250 400 Va Alexander Catharine 28 F Ohio Alexander Martha 29 F Ohio Alexander James 10 M UT Alexander Wm 8 M UT Alexander Hellen 6 F UT Alexander Eliza F 4 F UT Alexander Alice G 3 F UT Alexander Franklin D 2 M UT Alexander Flora A 1 F UT 1863H M Alexander returns to Springville. 1869 H M Alexander is a member of the Silver Greys in Springville, a home guard composed of young boys and older men to guard the settlements during the Black Hawk war. 1871 Nancy Cresse Walker dies in Minersville, Beaver county, Utah. 1875H. M. Alexander goes on a Mission to Iowa, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and Virginia, visiting relatives, as he travels to the locales of his youth. It is a sort of saying good-bye to relatives, some he has not met before, collecting genealogical materials, and some proselytizing thrown in as well. William C Walker is living in Hancock county, Illinois. 1881H. M. Alexander dies in Provo, Utah. 1894Diontha Walker Lyman dies in Minersville, Beaver county, Utah.

Life Timeline of Horace Martin Alexander

Horace Martin Alexander was born on 15 Feb 1812
Horace Martin Alexander was 14 years old when The Erie Canal opens: Passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie. The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. Originally, it ran 363 miles (584 km) from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie. It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and greatly affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, and the United States.
1825
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Horace Martin Alexander was 20 years old when Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard HMS Beagle, during which he will begin to formulate his theory of evolution. Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
1831
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Horace Martin Alexander was 28 years old when Samuel Morse receives the patent for the telegraph. Samuel Finley Breese Morse was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.
1840
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Horace Martin Alexander was 48 years old when Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species. Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
1859
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Horace Martin Alexander was 49 years old when American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces. The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. As a result of the long-standing controversy over slavery, war broke out in April 1861, when Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated. The nationalists of the Union proclaimed loyalty to the U.S. Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States, who advocated for states' rights to expand slavery.
1861
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Horace Martin Alexander was 68 years old when Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time, in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
1879
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Horace Martin Alexander died on 8 Sep 1881 at the age of 69
BillionGraves.com
Grave record for Horace Martin Alexander (15 Feb 1812 - 8 Sep 1881), BillionGraves Record 51604 Springville, Utah, Utah, United States

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