Nancy W Alexander

1817 - 1847

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Nancy W Alexander

1817 - 1847
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF HORACE MARTIN ALEXANDER Containing also a short sketch of Nancy, his wife. Written and compiled in 1927 by his granddaughter, Lucille Walker. My Grandfather, Horace Martin Alexander was born near Cavesville, on a tobacco plantation, in Orange County, Virginia, Febr
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Life Information

Nancy W Alexander

Born:
Died:

Springville City Cemetery

200 West 400 South
Springville, Utah, Utah
United States

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Life sketch of Horace Martin Alexander

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 3 years ago Updated: 3 years ago

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF HORACE MARTIN ALEXANDER Containing also a short sketch of Nancy, his wife. Written and compiled in 1927 by his granddaughter, Lucille Walker. My Grandfather, Horace Martin Alexander was born near Cavesville, on a tobacco plantation, in Orange County, Virginia, February 15, 1812. His parents, James and Frances Ehart Alexander, had eight children, of whom Horace was the youngest. His brothers and sisters were: Willis, Adam, Willis 2nd, Fannie, Maria, James and Thorton. When Horace was still quite young, the family moved to another Plantation over in Kentucky, about two and one-half miles from Hillsboro, in Fleming county. In this home of luxury and ease the lad grew to young manhood. He had not been taught to work. A southern gentleman does not do that, only slaves and “white trash” need to work. It to interesting to note here that he was not fitted, either by nature or by training, for the life of a pioneer. When he was about nineteen years old, he left his home and went out to seek his fortune elsewhere, to the chagrin of his parents. It is thought that an unfortunate love affair was the cause of his leaving. We next hear of him in Ohio, going with some other boys to torment the Mormons, who were holding a meeting there. Grandfather listened to the words of the Elders. After that he attended more of their services. Here he became acquainted with a devout Mormon girl, Nancy Reader Walker. Through her influence he was converted. On September 14th, 1834 he and Nancy were married. They were with the saints in their migration from Ohio to Missouri. On September 1st, 1836 when their first child, Frances Evelyn was born, they were living on a farm near Liberty in Clay County, Missouri. When, after a series of persecutions in Clay and Jackson County, the saints realized that they could expect no protection from the State, they petitioned the legislature to assign them a place where they might live. It was on this territory assigned them that the city of Far West was built. Here in 1837 and 1838 grandfather kept a store according to a day book he kept at this time. Some of the charge accounts of this little book are interesting: Saleratus 2 lbs. 30¢, Candles 25¢, Calico 50¢, flour 24 lbs. $1.25, Molasses 50¢. These items were paid for by pork. Grandfather used to tell how friendly he and Joseph Smith were at this time. The Prophet, an imposing figure on his big white horse, would ride right into Grandfather's store, and the horse would paw for what it wanted. The Saints soon became so numerous and so prosperous that the people of Missouri and even Governor Boggs feared that they would soon own Missouri (the Mormons were so united and thrifty, there was cause for alarm). The state militia supposedly called to quell the mobs, actually joined the mobs in driving the Mormons from Missouri, The Saints had to pledge their property to defray the cost of the war. They had to leave the state before spring, 1839. The expulsion began in February and by the middle of April no Mormons were left In Missouri. Whither should they go? Homeless, almost destitute, they camped in tents and wagons on the banks of the frozen Missouri River. Some had been forced to flee without sufficient clothing and bedding to keep them warm. Grandfather, who had achieved property in Far West, had to leave everything behind, even his big trunk. His wife was in a delicate condition. He must find a home for her and their two and one-half year old daughter. How he ever succeeded in traveling way down the river to Alton in lower Illinois (Madison County) is not known. But here at Alton, in March, 1839, his day book records, a baby girl, Nancy, was born to them. What an experience for these two young parents. The family lived here about two years. On March 5, 1841, another daughter was born (our Grandmother) Sarah Malinda. Most of the Saints on leaving Far West had gone up the Mississippi River to Quincy, Illinois, where they were treated with sympathy. They purchased a city of about twenty houses, called Commerce. Here they built the City of Nauvoo in a little over a year, a city of 15,000 people, 800 houses of stone, frame and logs. What an achievement for a years work! What other people could have done such a thing? Here in 1841 they began to build their temple. Joseph Smith, in a revelation, called all the Saints to bring their gold, etc, and come to Zion to help build the Temple. In answer to this call grandfather left Alton and joined the Saints at Nauvoo. In April 1841, we find he and his wife and their three children living at the home of a brother Ables. In Alton or earlier he seems to have learned carpentry for his day book records that he worked on the Temple beginning in March, 1842. Once more he prospered. The little family was very happy. On October 15, 1843, their fourth child Dionitia was born. Soon after this, began the persecution which ended in the killing of the Prophet and in the expulsion of the Mormons from Illinois in the spring of 1846. Banoroft’s history gives the idea that Pres. Smith’s aspiring to be President of the United States and his beginning the Practice of Polygamy were probably the chief reasons for the expulsion, The Mormons were driven almost at the point of the bayonet. They were not given sufficient time to dispose of their home and lands, but had to trade them off for whatever they could get. Early in February they set forth, destination unknown, to find a place where they might be safe. Their first camp was on Sugar Creek in Iowa. Here there was much suffering. The autumn found practically all of the Saints camped at Winter Quarters and Council Bluffs. In the meantime war had been declared between the United States and Mexico. Brigham Young appealed to the government for work for his men, offering to help fight the U.S. battles. Accordingly, the Government called for 500 volunteers to be raised among the Saints. The Mormon men hated to leave their families to go off to war, but it meant that their monthly pay would help to buy the necessary outfits for conveying the Saints across the plains. Grandfather, along with nearly all the able bodied, husky men of the camps, enlisted in Company B. His wife and children were left in the care of the church. The Mormon Battalion began the greatest march of infantry ever known, July 19, 1846, from Council Bluffs. The Mormon soldiers didn’t buy an outfit of shoes and clothing with the $40.00 allotted them by the government for that purpose. Instead they sent it back to their suffering families. As a consequence many of them were almost naked before the 2,000 mile march was half over. Their path lay over an uncharted desert. In some places food was so scarce they had to kill worn out horses and mules to eat. At one time they marched a hundred miles without water. On the San Pedro River there was an encounter with a herd of buffalo. Grandfather barely escaped with his life. They reached San Diego January 29th 1847, and found the Stars and Stripes floating there. Back at Winter Quarters on January 1st, 1847, Nancy in the crudest of log huts, gave birth to a son Horace Martin Alexander, Jr. The weather was bitter cold. There was not sufficient bedding to keep the mother and babe warm and dry. The little lady was lonely. She called for her husband’s riding boots, which was all she had of him, and would hug them to her and weep. On the 28th of January she died. Three days later the month old infant died too. With Nancy during her illness was my grandmother, Catherine Houston, then an orphan girl of fifteen years. After the children went to live with Nancy's sister, Mrs. Henry Rollins. Catherine was taken along too to take care of the children who loved her. Together they crossed the plains. Grandfather, now a Corporal in the Battalion, received word of his wife’s death months later at San Diego. He could not go to his children until his term of enlistment expired in July, the 16th. When he was mustered out of service he did not wait for his company to march, but with a companion or two, set forth at once on horseback for the Great Salt Lake. They arrived in Salt Lake about October 16th, 1847. Grandfather, who had bartered the shirt off his back to get a pint of beans to keep himself and his companions from starving, had to half bury himself in the straw of Brother Hamilton's stable, while his companion went to the house of Hamilton’s to explain his plight. That night Sister Hamilton made grandfather a shirt out of an old skirt. Grandfather here received word that his children, with one of the Parley Pratt Companies was well on its way to the Valley. So with a few other brothers he hurried forth again on horseback to meet them. It is thought that he sighted the emigrant train somewhere in Wyoming. It was touching, this meeting of the father and his motherless girls. It is small wonder that Grandfather learned to love this young Catherine when he first met her thus, mothering his children. The party reached Utah early in November. On November 6th Grandfather began to work for Madison Hamilton. Grandmother still continued to live with the Henry Rollins family and to take care of the little Alexanders. On February 15, 1849, Horace and Catherine were married. At the same time, in obedience to the advise of his friend and leader Brigham Young, he married Martha Burwell, whom he had met in Salt Lake. In 1853 Grandfather was called to help settle Parowan, Iron County. Carpenters were sorely needed. It was hard to have to leave their good comfortable home to go again into a new country. But they did without a murmur. They lived here eight years. Here my mother, Helen Alexander, was born. They came back to settle in Springville in November 1861. Here Grandfather was made Captain of the “Silver Greys” a company of Militia organized to guard the town during the Civil War. For a few years both wives lived together in one house. Then Grandfather secured a home for each as the families were getting so large. In 1869 when Grandfather moved with Catherine and family to Provo to help build the woolen mills, Martha remained in Springville till her death, many years later. In November 1875, Grandfather sold his land to get money to go on a mission to the Southern States. He wished to convert his own people and also wished to see if he might get a share of his father's estate. He found his parents dead, says his diary, and his brothers and sisters either dead or most of them moved to Indiana, Chicago and other places. The estate, like many others, had been ravaged by the Civil War and had been sold. He found such misery and poverty there, in Virginia and Kentucky among those who had once been wealthy. He was very kindly received by his relatives, both of Kentucky and Virginia. In his birthplace, he found 1203 first cousins. A nephew in Kentucky took him, in his fine barouche with his spanking bays, for a ride through Fleming County, Kentucky. The carriage was closed, and the horses trotted so fast they had gone a mile beyond his old home before he recognized the estate. Then he said he would not have known it but for the creek where he used to go fishing as a boy. He returned from his mission in 1876. In September 1881 he died at his home in Provo. He was a man who loved honor and truth. He was fair, just and had a sense of humor. All who knew him loved and respected him.

INTERACTION AMONG THE ALEXANDER, WALKER AND ROLLINS FAMILIES

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 3 years ago Updated: 3 years ago

The Alexander Family of Virginia, Indiana, & Utah and the related Ehart, & Lucas Families of Virginia and the Walker, Cresse & Townsend Families of New York & New Jersey A James Alexander Sr, and a James Alexander of Orange County, Virginia apprear on the Army Register of Service during the Revolutionary War. James Alexander Sr. served with Captain Rankin's Company, Orange County, Virginia. - exempted 1779 for infirmity. James Alexander served with Captain Campbell's Company, Orange County, Virginia 1779, and with Captain Dickey's Company, Orange County, 1781. In 1792 James Alexander Jr married Frances Ehart in Orange County, where they remained until sometime after 1818. Frances Ehart, born 26 September 1772 in Culpepper County, Virginia, was the daughter of Adam Michael Ehart and Mary Lucas. The Ehart Family The 1785 Virginia census lists Adam Ehart of Orange County as a head of household consisting of 6 whites, one dwelling and one slave. The 1787 census lists one slave over 16, and one slave under sixteen, 3 horses and 10 cattle. Both Adarn and a Jacob Ehart are listed as Orange County petitioners for payments as soldiers in the Revolutionary War. The Lucas Family William Lucas, the father of Mary Lucas appeared on a list of militia paid off at Pittsburgh (Fort Pitt) in 1775, and another list of those paid off at Romney, also in 1775. It is probable that these were colonial troops in Dunmore's War late in receiving their pay. Most later joined the Revolutionary forces. 22 The 1782 Virginia census lists William Lucas of Orange County as the head of household of 8 whites, and 17 slaves. The 1785 census records a household of 6 whites, one dwelling and 8 slaves. John Murray, the 4th Ear] of Dunmore in an Indian campaign known as Dunmore's War. One expedition was headed by Andrew Lewis, while he personally led another expedition from Fort Dunmore at Pittsburgh. A final treaty was negotiated with the Indians in the Scioto Valley. With the outbreak of the Revolution, Dunmore headed the loyalist forces in Virginia, shelling and burning Norfolk, Virginia in 1776. Dunmore's War. In 1774 a force of Virginian's was led by Chronology of Horace Martin Alexander (combined with the Walker family chronology after the 1834 marriage of Horace Martin Alexander & Nancy Reeder Walker) compiled by Len Evans 1782 James Alexander sr. Capt. Rankin's's Company. Orange County, Virginia. Exempted 1779 for infirmity. Virginia Census 1782 dwellings whites blacks William Lucas Orange County 8 17 John Lucas " 10 - 1785 Virginia Census 1785 William Lucas Olange County 1 6 8 William Lucas jr " - 5 Adam Ehart " 1 6 1 Jacob Ehart " - 4 1 1787 Virginia Census 1787 blacks blacks horses cattle 16+ 16- Adam Ehart Orange County 1 1 3 10 Jacob Ehart " - - 2 6 1792 James Alexander marries Frances Ehart in Orange County, Virginia where they remain until about 1807. 1805 The future Prophet Joseph Smith is born in Vermont. 1812 February 15 - Horace Martin Alexander is born near Canesville, Orange County, Virginia. 1830-2 The Book of Mormon is published, and the church organized in Fayette, NY. Joseph Smith settles in Kirtland, Ohio. Jackson County, Missouri is identified as Zion and settlement begins. Much proselytizing takes place in Missouri by church members passing back and forth from Kirtland, Ohio and Jackson County, Missouri. When Joseph Smith returned to Ohio in May 1832 there were 300 converts in Missouri. 1833-4 In July, strife between Mormons and non-Mormons in Jackson County, Missouri reaches the flash point when the office of the churches newspaper is burned by a mob. By November Mormons are forced to flee Jackson County, most settle in Clay County, MO According to his redress petition John R Walker and his family were in Jackson county, and driven out “by the Hands of a mob who pillaged and destroyed my Goods &C. &C. in Jackson and Caldwell Countys and Which Losses I Certify To be no Less than Five Hundred Dollars further that I suffered many Injuries from this mob By Breaking in my Windows By Thrusting Long Poles Through at My family and Driving them from their Habitation.” There is no record that other members of the Walker family were also in Jackson county. 1834 Horace Martin Alexander marries Nancy Reader Walker in Randolph County, Indiana - They are married by Nancy's father Oliver Walker, Justice of the Peace. 1836-7 Mormons are physically expelled from Clay County, MO. Most settle in Caldwell and Davies counties. Far West, Caldwell County becomes the center of Mormon settlement. 1836H. M. Alexander's first child is born in West Liberty, Clay County, MO 1838Through-out the summer tensions between Mormons and non-Mormons intensifies, with full scale war breaking out by autumn. In November, Joseph smith and other church leaders are arrested, the Mormons disarmed, and Far West plundered by the Missouri militias. During the winter and spring of 1838-9 the Mormon population was forced east across the state and Mississippi River into Illinois. 5 October - Horace M Alexander requests that he be made an Elder and to be accompanied by another Elder to go to Indiana and Ohio. He was made an Elder 5 October 1838, at Far West, Bringham Young presiding. 7 October- A Patriarchal Blessing pronounced by Joseph Smith Sr. upon the head of Horace M Alexander, son of James Alexander, who was born in Montgomery Orange County, Virginia. February 18th, 1812, given at Far West Mo. October 7th 1838. Brother Horace, in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Him who was crucified and slain for the sins of the World, in His name I lay my hands upon thy head and I bless thee with the blessings of a father. Thou shalt be blessed in as much as thou hast kept the commandments and in as much as thou hast thus far obeyed the commandments of the Lord, I pray God that he would still be with thee, and preserve thee that thou mayest not fall, and let His angels watch over thee, and that he would be thy frontlet and thy rearward. I now say unto thee Trust in God, trust not in the arm of flesh nor in thine own wisdom, lean upon the arm of God, be faithful and prayerful and ere thou shalt go far from thy home go into the grove and there call upon the Lord and there it shall be made known unto thee, what thou shalt do. Remember these things for I feel that they are spoken by the spirit of truth, be energetic and rend the Heavens by thy prayers and the glories of Heaven shall be reveled unto thee and the vision of thy mind shall be enlightened for thou shalt receive the Priesthood and thy sins are forgiven and thy name is written in Heaven, thou shalt be mighty in proclaiming the gospel and among those who carry the gospel forth there shall be none mightier than thee, thy name shall be had in remembrance to the latest generation, and thy blessing shall be handed down from generation to generation, to thy posterity, for thy posterity shall be numerous, they shall become eminent and be renowned, and the blessings of Abraham Isaac and Jacob shall be given thee, thou shalt have a name and a place among the sons of Joseph for thou art of the blood of Joseph, and of the seed of Ephraim and thou art one of the horns of Joseph that must push many people together, and thy voice shall be heard among many nations who are afar off, even among nations who have not heard that there be a God. Trust in God and all opposition shall be prostrated before thee, thine enemies shall have no power over thee. The great men of the Earth shall seek thy company and learn of thee. The earth shall tremble at thy word the elements shall obey thee, waters and tempests shall not harm thee, prison walls nor chains cannot hold thee, and many of the dead shall arise and come forth at thy command. Thou shall be of the Hundred and forty four thousand and learn that song which none but that number can can learn, and I seal the seal of God upon Thee, thou shalt have power over the destroyer and I leave thee in the hands of the Lord, and I seal these blessings upon thee in the name of Jesus, even so, Amen. 30 October - Oliver Walker's role as peace maker at the time of the Haun's Mill massacre Oliver Walker owns 100 acres of land about 3 miles from Haun's Mill, Caldwell county, MO. According to the testimony of Isaac Leany, in a Mormon Redress Petition, signed April the 20 1839 Quincy Illinois: “ “I Shall now procede to give an account of the bloody but(c)hery that taken place at a blacksmyth Shop at Hawns mille on Shoal creek on the 30th day of Oct. 1838. the mob party increased from time to time & committed outrages after outrages until at lenth the mormons not willing to bare it no longer they Said to the general what must they do was they not to have no protection must they Stand and See there property Stolen there familys abused there houses burned there cattle drove off & nothing to be done for them. then jeneral Donathan Said to them go & defend your Selves & drive the mob from Daviess county drive them to hell, breathing out an oath against them. the mormons then went out Supposing that they was legaly ortherized, & finding that the mob had burned Six or Seven of there houses & was carying on at a great hand Stealing & driveing off there Stock So the mormons went to work determed to rout them or dy in the attempt, they Soon got the mob in the notion of leaving Daviess county So a great portion of them fled in to Livingston ajoining county & told that the mormons was burning there houses Steeling & plundering & it was Soon blown to the four winds that the mormons was doing everything that was bad now the citiz of livingston & the mob that had left Daviess began to Steel cattle from the mormons that lived in the neighbourhood of Hawns mille & also to go threw the neighbourhood & take there guns from them, they came twice & drove off cattle & an other time they came & took Several guns they also as we heard Said that they would burn our mill down, & we new that they was not too good to do it, & nowing that it was our only chance to get on going, for we dare not to go to there milles So about thirty of us went to guard them from burning it down & while we was guarding the mill we held a council to now what plan we Should fall upon to accomplish a treaty or to come on Some conditions of peace it was voted that a letter Should be written & Sent to them imediately desireing to k[n]ow what there determinations was, for they had imboddyed themselves Several days before we had & we heared thay was comeing on us, we had appointed to take them the letter & just before he Started they came a mesage from them desireing too or three of our leading men to go & meet the too or three of there leading men & see if they compermise the matter, this was the verry thing that we wanted. So in the presance of there mesinger we elected thre men to go compermise with them. we also in the presance of there mesinger unanimously agreed to abide the treaty that our men Should make with them our thre men then Started fourth with to the place that they desired them to come to & thare they met with twelve or fourtee armed men. So the too partys began to counci the matter & Soon found that the difficulty that was between them was easy removed, that it was in consequence of false reports that had occasioned them to guether themselves to guether, they had heared that the mormons intended to come &C burn dow there houses, they Settled the difficulty without mutch trouble, the Misouriens was not willing to countunance Such conduct as this Steeling party was gilty of nor be called of that party So they would not associaiat with them, but agreed to use there enfluence to get them to come & compermise with us also & we was useing every effort that lay in our power to get on peasible terms with them when we thought that we had got the difficultys Settled with the greater part of them & was likely to Suceede in geting if while I was liveing near Hawns mills on Shoal Creek Mo and about the 25th or 26th of October 1838 I was informed that a company of mob of twenty in number under Nehemiah Cumstock had been to the mill and leveled pieces at those present demanding all their guns one man gave up his rifle another who had his gun in hand refused and started off two of the mob followed and snaped their guns at him twice or three times each one of these men I was told was Hiram Cumstock the other name I never learned though the man whom they were trying to shoot made his way off and gave word to the neighbor who met the next day at the mill to hear the story from the different families who informed us that the mob had sworn the burning of the neighbourhood and mill with the other hard threats such as killing Hiram Abbot who would not give up his gun we also learned that thare was another company of men lying below us at house of Mr McCrosky & knowing that either of those companies was far superior to ours in numbers some of the neighbours wanted to leave their homes and run off but haveing only about seven waggons to twenty three or four families we had to stay and defend our selves and as I recollect it was on the twenticighth of the month we conducted to offer them terms of peace but before our mesengers had started thare came one from the company below us with a request that we would send three men to the house of Oliver Walker to make a treaty with three men which they would send to the same house David Evans Jacob Myers seignior and Anthony Blackburn was chosen to meet them and on going to Walkers they met ten men with each a rifle instead of three without arms however peace prevailed and a treaty was soon made and agreed a pon I suppose to the satisfaction of both sides and on next day two of our men went back again those two were Evans and Ames they was told that the other company had sent a mesenger to Cumstock and his company with word of the treaty between us and them and also told them that we wanted to treat with them they said that Cumstocks company was not only mad with us but mad with them for making any kind of a treaty with us Evans sent them word that he wanted nothing but peace and would not fight them without offering them terms of peace I cannot tell whether or not they got the word or not but well I remember that on the thirtyeth of October about three o clock in the afternoon Cumstocks whole army of two hundred and fifty men came a pon us our company was about thirtyseven in number being joined by a company of families traveling to the other side of that County and the adjoining Counties stoped thare to get grinding at the mill Cumstocks company formed a kind of broken line at the distance of about seventyfive yards situating their horses in front for a kind of breastwork commenced a fire without passing a word meantime Capt Evans advanced toward them and called aloud for Quarters untill thev Fired I sppose between fifty and a hundred rounds with out any answer then we could do nomore than Fire afew shots while the women and children made their escape the mob still advancing came within about four or Five rods when I made my escape by flight being shot four times through the body and once across each arm being about the last man off the ground now I am well aware that this is an incredible story to tell that amman being shot four times through body made his escape by flight but I have the scare to show ten in number one ball entering my body through the inside comer of my left shoulder blade came outjust below about two and a half or three inches below my collar bone and as far as three inches on the right of the midle of my breast another entered through the muscle under the hind part of my left arm and passed through my body and came out under the middle of my right aim another passed through the my left hip on the inside or through the uper end of my hip bone another through my right hip hit the bone just about the joint glanced out through the skin and rolled down my drawers leg in to my boot these four balls made eight visible wounds with two others one across each arm are all the wounds in my flesh I cannot tell how many bullet holes was in my clothing thare was twentyseven in my shirt but to my story haveing made my own escape and hid my self I listened at them shooting the wounded which could not escape I was informed that one of these murderers followed old father McBride in his retreat and and cut him down with an old sythe while he was pleading for mercy this was seen by Mrs ames and two other ladies who were secreted under the creek bank Waren Smith and his Son was also shot a seccond time being unable to retreat after their first wounds Jacob Fouls and Wm. Champlin feined their selves dead and lay still untill their pockets were robed and after they supposd the wounded all were all dead they robed the houses took the horses from the mill and out of the stables and two waggons from the mill and off they went for the night but on the first or seccond of Nov they returned and camped at the mill robed that plundered the neighbourhood taking offsuch things as they pleased mob law being established in this band ofrobers murderers and thieves was Wm. Man Esq. N. Cumstock Esq Howard Maupin Jesse Maupin James and Stephan Reynolds called Runnels Hiram Cumstock a young man named Glase Erasmus Severe Jacob Rodgers Robert White George Miller Sardis Smith Elijah Trosper these men came on painted black trimed of with red rags and ribbands screming like so many demons enough to disgrace a heathen forest much more a land of liberty after some spend in this manner captain went to Richmond to draw pay for his service I was told that instead of pay they gave him a cursing and threatened him with justice throwing the murder and robery in his teeth and orders to return the stolen property (thema] this made Cumstock mad and on his way home he passed the mill and stuck up an advertisement staling that the stolen property should be brought to his house and could be had by paying him for taking care of hit some of the property was got and I have seen some of the horses that was worked [—] to death and rode nearly down but some of the best of them could not be found for asmall reward and one of the mob was going round trying to buy the chance of such they being about the best that was taken the names of the murdered Benjamin LewisJohn YorkJohn Lee, John Byers, Wm Napier, Warren Smith, Austin Hammer, Simon Cox, Levi Merick, Elias Benner, George Richards, — Campbell, Josiah Fuller,Thomas McBride, Sardis Smith a little boy. wounded Tariton Lewis, Jacob Fonts, Jacob Myers, Jacob Hawn, Jacob Potts, Isaac Leany, Wm Yocum, Nathan Night, — Walker(not related), Charles Jimison, Alma Smith a little boy, Mary Steadwell, Hiram Abbot, Charles Merick a boy mortally wounded this I will support in any court of justice.” --------- Abraham Palmer’s testimony in a Mormon Redress Petition, sworn to before J. Adams. J.P., Sangamon Co., IL, 9 Nov 1839. “Abraham Palmer of Springfield Sangamon County State of Illinois says he is a member of the Church of Latter day Saints commonly called Mormons and that he moved into the State of Missouri in October 1838 and proceeded with his family in a waggon as far as Caldwell County where he arrived two days before the Massacre of the Mormons at Haun's Mill he stopped at a Mr Walkers about four miles from the said Mill where he remained in his waggon with his family in company with six other waggons of his brethren untill after the Massacre The next day after the aforesaid outrage a company of the mob came to him and brethren and said if you will deny your faith you can live with us in peace but if you will not you must leave the Country forthwith on pain of death for we will exterminate all of you that do not deny your faith men women and children. The above proposition was made by a man who had previously assisted in plundering our waggons he called his name Austin and Styled himself Captain of the Livingston County Spies.” Abraham Palmer ---------- Reuben Naper testimony in a Mormon Redress Petition, testimony in a Mormon Redress Petition, sworn to before D. H. Wells, Hancock county, Illinois, 3 January 1840: “I Certify that I lived near Hauns Mill about three months. On Tuesday the thirtieth day of October being absent from home at the House of Mr Walker, while their a man came up and told us that the mob had come to the Mill and that they had Shown no Quarter, and that they intended to Sweep Shoal Creek. That evening I Started to go to the mill and proceeded Some distance I met Some Families in the Woods who had fled from the Slaughter they persuaded me not to go any further that night So I Consented to Stay with them. We all Slept in the Woods that night without any beds or any thing to Cover us wilh excepting two women who had brought Each of them a quilt. The next morning I pursued my Journey and went I got to the Mill I met my Mother and the rest of the family I asked them if my Father was dead. They told me to go and look into the Shop I immediately went to the Shop and Saw Seven men and one boy lying dead amongst whom was my Father who was shot through the head and through the heart Three more I found lay dead near the Shop and Several more reached Some houses and Soon afterwards died, in all there were Eighteen killed Sixteen men and two boys.” --------- James H. Rollins recalls: “Col George M Hinkle ordered 50 men to go and relieve or guard them, but only our 10 volunteered to go for we were determined to go and help our brethren. As we rode across the square, Joseph the Prophet came out of George Robertson's house, where David Patten and Obanion lay dead. He came out without hat or coat and stopped us, asking us where we were going. We told him we were going to Haun's Mill. He told us that we were his men and we must not go if we did go against his advice and council there would not be one us left to tell the tale tomorrow morning. He was very pale, and white. He said, 'Go and put up your horses and help us to bury these two brethren.' And we did just as he told us." 4 September - Evaline Walker daughter of Oliver Walker marries James Henry Rollins on Shoal Creek, 4 miles from Haun's Mill just four days after the massacre there. 29 September - "...the camp (Kirtland Caravan) passed through Chilicothe the county seat of Livingston County, they traveled up the side of the Grand River and crossed the river near the small village of Utica. After crossing Shoal Creek, they camped on the west bank, fifteen miles inside the border of Caldwell County, “on the farm of Oliver Walker, who gave each family a pumpkin and plenty of shelled beans. Today we felt like we had arrived in Zion." --------- Trial At Richmond Jail according to James Henry Rollins "About 11 o'clock the Prophet Joseph and Hyrum were brought into the court department, which was situated on the same floor where we were kept. A pole stretched across, kept us back from Judge King and his court. I stood close to this pole at the back of Joseph and Hyrum and the Lawyers Donaphan and Atchison. A man was brought in as witness against me by the name of Odel, who testified that I had burned his house. I spoke openly, as I stood behind Joseph and Hyrum, that he was a curly headed liar. Joseph turned his head and said "Shaw, Henry dont say anything." This saying caused some commotion in the court room. What was done about it I don't remember. We were kept prisoners for several weeks. At last was agreed that we could bail each other out. One of the brethren bailing another. Sometimes one would go bail for 3 or 4 of the brethren until they were all bailed out but myself. Isaac Allred haveing agreed to bail me previous to this, but did not. I got one of the guards to go with me and find him. I asked him about it, he said he couldn't do it as he had bailed out four or five. I was taken back and kept under guard until evening, when I learned my young wife (Evaline Walker) had come to see me from Lewiston, where she was left among strangers all this time. Donaphan and the Lawyers took me to Gudgell hotel to see her and when I got to the hotel they said I should stay there that night, which I did in a very small room 6 by 8, with 2 guards inside lying with their heads against the door. I was very sick that night, my wife was obliged to go out over the guards bed, to hunt the nurse to get some medicine for the relief of my pain. The guard was determined not to let he go out, when my brother-in-law said, "0, let her go." My brother-in-law was one of the mob. The next morning at breakfeast they set me and my wife at the head of the table, all eyes were turned upon us. About 10 o'clock in the day I succeeded in obtaining bail. My bail was fixed for all these crimes and was signed by the nortorious Boguard, Methosist preacher, and Nathaniel Carr, my brother-in-law. Soon after this was settled, I obtained a horse, sadle and bridal and started with my wife on the same horse to Far West 35 miles distant. It was quite cold and we had to ride and run alternately until we arrived at Far West in the night safely. We had not been home long, before Boguard appeared in Far West and exacted my stepfather's hotel, my father-in-laws hundred acres ofl and and 40 acres of my own land, and at least a thousand dollars worth of other property to secure for the five hundred dollars, or he would take me back to jail. Some of the land that be wanted lay 3 miles from Haun's Mill and I had not heard whether my wife's Father would consent to Boguard's requirements. About this time my wife's brother William Walker brought a horse saddle and bridal and Portmanteau and told me to take the horse and skip. Boguard that evening, took me up stairs and told me if I didn't produce those men to go my security the next day, he would take me back to jail. That night I saddled the horse, my mother giving me sixteen dollars to start with. C L Higby and myself started together. The young people of Far West had gathered at a house a half mile out of town to bid us goodbye. After Crossing the Mississippi River "I crossed the river and got into upper Alton at 9 o'clock at night, having ridden the same horse three hundred and fifty miles in 5 days. Finding my brother-in- law (John Walker] there. I found a home and resting place." Which was lucky as he was soon "taken with a billious colic...1 was several days in a very bad condition, but hearing about this time that Boguard was in puisuit of me, I saddled my horse and rodes some 60 miles into Magovin Co," where he split rails for several days, but upon recieving a warning in his sleep, that "Your wife Evalin is in Alton, if you want to see her; hurry." (He immediately heads back to Alton, but is greatly puzzled by the queer advances a mysterious stranger makes towards him in a Tavern where he stops to warm himself. Arriving at Alton, "worn out for sleep and very weary," he asks a boy if his wife is there. The boy answers, "Yes, she is very bad at her brother John Walker's house," adding, "If you want to see her alive, hurry." "There I found my warning true in every sense, as the doctor and women were just putting my wife in bed when I arrived. She had been expected to die for days previous to this. A few days after my return she began to recover. I soon rented a house, and my family and William Walker's family moved together into the house. ..Soon after this Adam Lightner and wife (James' sister) returned from Louisville, Kentucky and lived in the same house also, it being a very large one, where we remained during the summer. "I then moved to Clifton 6 miles above Alton where we found a house empty, large enough for 3 or 4 families to live in. We here determined to build a large flat boat for carrying wood to Alton and St Louis. This boat we constructed during the winter, ..which we finished in the spring and loaded it with wood for St Louis. The trip we made successfully. We paid 29 dollars to a Steam boat in St Louis to tow it up to our landing place. After making another trip to St Louis, I disposed with my share of the boat to my other partners, and myself and wife went 1840 to Alton, and boarded the steamer Austria and set sail for Montrose in Iowa, opposite Nauvoo." 1839 Joseph Smith and other church leaders escape imprisonment, and begin the settlement of Nauvoo, Illinois. Horace M Alexander is in upper Alton, Madison County, Illinois. He remains there until after March 1841 1840 With the influx of Mormons, Nauvoo becomes the largest city in Illinois. 13 January - Horace M. Alexander, J.H. Rollins, John R and William C Walker write redress petitions in Madison County, Illinois. The church encouraged members to address these petitions to the U. S. Congress in an attempt to bring attention to the plight of the Mormon refugees. There was probably never much hope that Congress would compensate the displaced Mormons, but it was no doubt disappointing that Congress failed to register any moral outrage over what had happened in Missouri, and simply ignored the petitions. January 13,1840 To the honorables Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled at Washington City in the D.C. I the undersigned by these resent Reprisents To Your Honorable Body My Losses & Sufferings that I sustained from the hands of a Mob in the State of Missouri in The Year 1838. .. and This may Certify while on a Journey To In. My family were Left in far west at the Time of the oppression By the Mob they were not Permitted To Leave their Homes To get Bread, and Therefore nearly Perishd for want of food &C. and further say that the Losses which I sustained of Real and personal property To be no Less than 1500 dollars, further was obliged to Leave the State to save my life and was obliged to Leave my family To suffer for about 4 Months H. M. Alexander {Sworn to before J. H. Randle, N., Madison Co., IL, 13 Jan 1840.) WALKER, John R. Alton January 13,1840 To the Honorable House of the Senate & Representatives in Congress Assembled at the City of Washington And District of Columbia I the undersigned do by these presents represent To You my Losses and Sufferings in the State of Missouri in the Year 183(8]. &C by the Hands of a mob who pillaged and destroyed my Goods &C. &C. in Jackson and Caldwell Countys and Which Losses I Certify To be no Less than Five Hundred Dollars further that I suffered many Injuries from this mob By Breaking in my Windows By Thrusting Long Poles Through at My family and Driving them from their Habitation. John R. Walker {Sworn to before J. H. Randle, N.P.. Madison Co., IL, 13 Jan 1840. WALKER, William C. Alton January 13.1840 To the honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled at the City of Washington District of Columbia I The Undersigned do by these presents Represent To You my Losses And Suffering in the Stole of Missouri in the Year 1838 By the Hands of the Mob in that State who Distroyed and pillaged My Goods & Chattels and drove me and my family from my home. And do Certify my Loss of property To be no Less than Six Hundred Dollars Wm C. Walker {Sworn to before J. H. Randle. N.P., Madison Co.. IL, 13 Jan 1840. ROLLINS, James H. January 13.1840 To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled at the City of Washington in the district of Columbia—1 the undersignd do by these presents represent To Your Honorable body my Losses Sufferings and Troubles which I sustained and underwent by the hands of a Ruthless mob in the State of Missouri upheld and sustained by L. W. Boggs acting Governor of that state in the Year 1838. And this may Certify that on the 6th day of August, 1838. while at an Election held in daviess County Missouri, while we the people Called Mormons were Voting As the Law of our Country dictates and Guarantees unto us that we were hindred from this our privilege By a mob of the people of that County Raising against us and driving us from the polls with Clubs Raw Hydes &C. [—j Also drove us from the Town and Threatened me If I did not Leave the Town They would Pull down my House over my Head. and which House Contained heavy stones &C &C, and which I was obliged To Leave, and which was mostly distroyed. Also [—] Another Establishment of the same in same County was Broken Open and Liquor & C. Taken Out By the Milita as they Called Themselves under Brgd. Genl. Parks of that Division To a Large amt. and which they Took and made use of&C. Many other Losses which I suffered which were very grievious To bear of Being driven from Land which I Had Entd. Town Lots &C. And the Loss of which Property Amounting To not less than 3000 Dollars which Loss I sustained By being driven from my Home under The Exterminatig Orders of his Excellency Lilbern W. Boggs. And By this I appeal To Your Honorable Body for redress of the sore Grievances which I And my Brethren have suffered for the Belief of the scriptures of Truth or in other words for our Religion.— And By this I importune at Your feet for Redress &C of My Wrongs And Your Servant will Ever pray. James H. Rollins P. S. I The undersigned Certify in addition That We the people Called Mormons after a Conference was held by The principal men of the Mo. Militia, was forced by the Point of the sword To sign a deed of Trust signing away our Lands. The principal man Engaged in this business was Thomas Birch Acting as States Attorney for that district, also Genl. Clark Commander in Chief of the Militia or also Genl. Sarni. D. Lucas of Independence Jackson County Mo. James H. Rollins {Sworn to before J. H. Randle. N.P.. Madison Co., IL. 13 Jan 1840.] -------- 11 October - Trial of Oliver Walter before the Nauvoo High Council David Fulmer preferred a charge against Oliver Walker "for reporting certain slanderous stories of a fallacious and calumniating nature, calculated to stigmatize, and raise a persecution against the Church and individuals in it, in this place, [Nauvoo], and for other acts of unchristianlike conduct," before the High Council at Nauvoo. The defendant pleaded that "he was not prepared to meet the charge, it being too indefinite." Council adjourned till next day. Sunday, 11 Oct-High Council met according to adjournment. The charge against Oliver Walker was taken up, and the following substituted for the first charge: Minutes of the High Council. To the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ at Nauvoo: For and in behalf of said Church, I prefer a charge against Elder Oliver Walker, for several different offenses hereinafter set forth, as said to be by him done, performed, said, and committed, as well as various duties omitted, all of which was done at different times, periods, places, and seasons, subsequent to September lst, A.D. 1838, to-wit.: For a general course of procedure, of acts, doings, and words, and suggestions by him, the said Elder Oliver Walker, done, performed, said, spoken, hinted at, and suggested, both directly and indirectly, and as calculated to be derogatory to the character of the heads and leaders of the Church, and extremely injurious and hurtful to the upbuilding, welfare, being, and advancement of the same, namely, for fleeing from, quitting, and deserting the society, ranks, and needs of his brethren, in times of difficulty with, and danger from their enemies, "the mob," restraining from the use of his brethren, his influence, efforts, and needful assistance, at such times of need; as also for joining with, and strengthening the hands, will, evil pursuits, and designs of the mob, and Gentile enemies of the Church, by expressions, hints, and suggestions of wavering and dubious nature, respecting the faith and. order of the Church, and of the professed calling, qualifications, proceeding, &c., of Joseph Smith, Jun., as a Seer, Prophet, and one called to bring to light the fullness of the Gospel, &c., in these last days. Likewise for advancing ideas, notions, or opinions, that the different orders or sects, namely, Methodists and others, could by a pursuit in their faith, order, and pursuits, as readily obtain every celestial attainment and Gospel advantage, as they could by embracing and pursuing the system brought forth by Joseph Smith, Jun., in these last days. And moreover for suggesting within the last six months, at Alton, Nauvoo, intermediate and adjacent places, that in the Church at Nauvoo there did exist a set of pilferers, who were actually thieving, robbing plundering, taking and unlawfully carrying away from Missouri, certain and chattels, wares and property; and that the act and acts of such suppose thieving, &c., was fostered and conducted by the knowledge and approbation of the heads and leaders of the Church, viz., by the Presidency and High Council; all of which items set forth as aforesaid, together with any and all corroborating acts, doings, hints, expressions, and suggestions in any way belonging to, or connected with, any or all of the aforesaid accusations, he, the said Oliver Walker, is hereby notified to prepare to defend in said trial. Dated October 11, 1840, Nauvoo. David Fulmer. Walker pleaded that he was not prepared to defend himself, and the trial was deferred till April conference. No further reference to a trial has been found to date. 1841Horace M Alexander is in Nauvoo, Illinois, 2nd Ward 184212 August - William Walker rides Joseph Smith's horse Joe Duncan across the Mississippi River to give the impression that Joseph Smith had crossed over to the Iowa side. 6 December - Arrest warrant signed Nauvoo, Illinois, by Joseph Smith for the arrest of Amos Davis accused of assault and battery on William C Walker. The Trials of Amos Davis & the assault on William C Walker. Wednesday, Nov 30, 1842.--Morning, in counsel in the large assembly room preparing evidence in the case of bankruptcy. Afternoon, had Amos Davis brought before the municipal court for slander; but, in consequence of the informality of the writ drawn by Squire Daniel H. Wells, I (Joseph Smith) was non-suited. Friday, Dec 2.--Sat as Mayor on trial of Amos Davis, who was fined in the sum of $25 for breach of city ordinance for selling spirits by the small quantity. Saturday, Dec 3.-- In the afternoon, attended the municipal court in the case of Amos Davis, for breach of city ordinance, &c... Monday, (Dec) 5.--In the morning, attended in council with Brother Hyrum and others on bankruptcy, making an inventory of our property, and schedule of our liabilities, that we might be prepared to avail ourselves of the laws of the land as did others. Afternoon, had conversation with Brother Green. In the evening, attended the Masonic Lodge. Tuesday, (Dec) 6.--Attended the trial of an appealed case of Amos Davis before the municipal court. Judgment confirmed. From the Journal History of the Church There is no mention of the warrant issued against Davis for Assaulting William C Walker. It is not at all clear what the issues involved here were. Did Davis assault Walker? Levi Hancock stationed William C. Walker at the door of a Mormon meeting in Winchester, Indiana to discourage the townspeople from following through on threats to disrupt it. It is a job that is usual given to someone who through looks or reputation inspires a fear of retribution in others.. That was in 1831, perhaps Walker had lost some of his intimidating qualities in eleven years, or was Davis, perhaps even more intimidating, or just foolhardy and reckless. Justice in Nauvoo was very often tightly controlled and rather loosely defined. Joseph Smith, and the Nauvoo City Council were at that very moment rewriting the definition of habeas corpus to deflect legal attempts to extradite Smith to Missouri for trial in the murder attempt on ex-Governor Boggs. Was there more to the Davis case than just selling spirits by small quantities, in other words, by the drink. 184313 April - Oliver Walker dies in Nauvoo, Illinois. 25 June - H M Alexander is part of a party to prevent the kidnapping of Joseph Smith. 15 October - Dionitia Alexander, daughter of H M Alexander & Nancy Walker Alexander, is born at Nauvoo, III. Diontha Walker, daughter of Oliver & Nancy Walker marries Amasa M Lyman" in Nauvoo 1844-5 Joseph and his brother Hymm are murdered by a mob at the Carthage Jail. The church is left leaderless, prompting an internal struggle for control of the church, while increasing antagonism makes it clear that the Mormons will be forced to leave Illinois. Plans to migrate west are announce in September 1845, while the Temple is rushed to completion. 1846 The first group of Mormons begins the exodus from Nauvoo, crossing the frozen Mississippi River in February. A string of settlements is established to facilitate the exodus. Main camps are established at Council Bluffs and Winter Quarters, where there is much suffering the first winter. 6 Feb Nancy Cressy Walker, widow of Oliver Walker is sealed to Oliver Walker, and married for life to Bringham Young at Nauvoo. Accompanying the initial evacuation of Nauvoo part way across Iowa, near Richardson's Point, Henry Rollins was ordered by Bringham Young to return to Nauvoo for his own family. After crossing back into Nauvoo Rollins relates, "that day I went to work to trade my horses for oxen. I succeeded, after much trouble, in obtaining 3 yoke of young oxen. I then took my family and effects and found Horace Alexander and family, with no team to draw their wagon. I furnished my best yoke of oxen to draw their wagon and family and pursued our journey toward Council Bluffs with Hector Haight, their father and others. " --------- Horace M Alexander is member of the Mormon Battalion. Corporal, Company B. In July 1846, under the authority of U.S. Army Captain James Allen and with the encouragement of Mormon leader Brigham Young, the Mormon Battalion was mustered in at Council Bluffs, Iowa Territory. The battalion was the direct result of Brigham Young's correspondence on 26 January 1846 to Jesse C. Little, presiding elder over the New England and Middle States Mission. Young instructed Little to meet with national leaders in Washington, D.C., and to seek aid for the migrating Latter-day Saints, the majority of whom were then in the Iowa Territory. In response to Young's letter, Little journeyed to Washington, arriving on 21 May 1846, just eight days after Congress had declared war on Mexico. Little met with President James K. Polk on 5 June 1846 and urged him to aid migrating Mormon pioneers by employing them to fortify and defend the West. The president offered to aid the pioneers by permitting them to raise a battalion of five hundred men, who were to join Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, Commander of the Army of the West, and fight for the United States in the Mexican War. Little accepted this offer. Colonel Kearny designated Captain James Allen, later promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, to raise five companies of volunteer soldiers from the able-bodied men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five in the Mormon encampments in Iowa. On 26 June 1846 Allen arrived at the encampment of Mt. Pisgah. He was treated with suspicion as many believed that the raising of a battalion was a plot to bring trouble to the migrating Saints. Allen journeyed from Mt. Pisgah to Council Bluffs, where on 1 July 1846 he allayed Mormon fears by giving permission for the Saints to encamp on United States lands if the Mormons would raise the desired battalion. Brigham Young accepted this, recognizing that the enlistment of the battalion was the first time the government had stretched forth its arm to aid the Mormons. On 16 July 1846 some 543 men enlisted in the Mormon Battalion. From among these men Brigham Young selected the commissioned officers; they included Jefferson Hunt, Captain of Company A; Jesse D. Hunter, Captain of Company B; James Brown, Captain of Company C; Nelson Higgins, Captain of Company D; and Daniel C. Davis, Captain of Company E. Among the most prominent non-Mormon military officers immediately associated with the battalion march were Lt. Col. James Allen, First Lt. Andrew Jackson Smith, Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke, and Dr. George Sanderson. Also accompanying the battalion were approximately thirty-three women, twenty of whom served as laundresses, and fifty-one children. The battalion marched from Council Bluffs on 20 July 1846, arriving on 1 August 1846 at Fort Leavenworth (Kansas), where they were outfitted for their trek to Santa Fe. Battalion members drew their arms and accoutrements, as well as a clothing allowance of forty-two dollars, at the fort. Since a military uniform was not mandatory, many of the soldiers sent their clothing allowances to their families in the encampments in Iowa.. The march from Fort Leavenworth was delayed by the sudden illness of Colonel Allen. Capt. Jefferson Hunt was instructed to begin the march to Santa Fe; he soon received word that Colonel Allen was dead. Allen's death caused confusion regarding who should lead the battalion to Santa Fe. Lt. A.J. Smith arrived from Fort Leavenworth claiming the lead, and he was chosen the commanding officer by the vote of battalion officers. The leadership transition proved difficult for many of the enlisted men, as they were not consulted about the decision. Smith and his accompanying surgeon, a Dr. Sanderson, have been described in journals as the "heaviest burdens" of the battalion. Under Smith's dictatorial leadership and with Sanderson's antiquated prescriptions, the battalion marched to Santa Fe. On this trek the soldiers suffered from excessive heat, lack of sufficient food, improper medical treatment, and forced long-distance marches. The first division of the Mormon Battalion approached Santa Fe on 9 October 1846. Their approach was heralded by Col. Alexander Doniphan, who ordered a one-hundred-gun salute in their honor. At Santa Fe, Smith was relieved of his command by Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke. Cooke, aware of the rugged trail between Santa Fe and California and also aware that one sick detachment had already been sent from the Arkansas River to Fort Pueblo in Colorado, ordered the remaining women and children to accompany the sick of the battalion to Pueblo for the winter. Three detachments consisting of 273 people eventually were sent to Pueblo for the winter of 1846-47. The remaining soldiers, with four wives of officers, left Santa Fe for California on 19 October 1846. They journeyed down the Rio Grande del Norte and eventually crossed the Continental Divide on 28 November 1846. While moving up the San Pedro River in present-day Arizona, their column was attacked by a herd of wild cattle. In the ensuing fight, a number of bulls were killed and two men were wounded. Following the "Battle of the Bulls," the battalion continued their march toward Tucson, where they anticipated a possible battle with the Mexican soldiers garrisoned there. At Tucson, the Mexican defenders temporarily abandoned their positions and no conflict ensued. On 21 December 1846 the battalion encamped on the Gila River. They crossed the Colorado River into California on 9 and 10 January 1847. By 29 January 1847 they were camped at the Mission of San Diego, about five miles from General Kearny's quarters. That evening Colonel Cooke rode to Kearny's encampment and reported the battalion's condition. On 30 January 1847 Cooke issued orders enumerating the accomplishments of the Mormon Battalion. "History may be searched in vain for an equal march of infantry. Half of it has been through a wilderness where nothing but savages and wild beasts are found, or deserts where, for lack of water, there is no living creature." During the remainder of their enlistment, some members of the battalion were assigned to garrison duty at either San Diego, San Luis Rey, or Ciudad de los Angeles. Other soldiers were assigned to accompany General Kearny back to Fort Leavenworth. All soldiers, whether en route to the Salt Lake Valley via Pueblo or still in Los Angeles, were mustered out of the United States Army on 16 July 1847. Eighty-one men chose to reenlist and serve an additional eight months of military duty under Captain Daniel C. Davis in Company A of the Mormon Volunteers. The majority of the soldiers migrated to the Salt Lake Valley and were reunited with their pioneering families. The men of the Mormon Battalion are honored for their willingness to fight for the United States as loyal American citizens. Their march of some 2,000 miles from Council Bluffs to California is one of the longest military marches in history. Their participation in the early development of California by building Fort Moore in Los Angeles, building a courthouse in San Diego, and making bricks and building houses in southern California contributed to the growth of the West. Following their discharge, many men helped build flour mills and sawmills in northern California. Some of them were among the first to discover gold at Sutter's Mill. Men from Captain Davis's Company A were responsible for opening the first wagon road over the southern route from California to Utah in 1848 1847The first wagon company leaves Winter Quarters for an uncertain destination in the Rocky Mountains. The Mormon Battalion had marched to California by way of Santa Fe, New Mexico the Previous summer. Bringham Young is sustained as the leader of the church. January - Nancy Reader Walker Alexander, and H.M. Alexander jr die at Winter Quarters, Nebraska. After her death the surviving children, along with the 15 year old orphan Catharine Houston, who lived with the Alexander family, and cared for the dying mother and children, are taken in by Nancy's sister Evaline, the wife of James Henry Rollins. The remnants of the Alexander family, and Catharine Houston migrate with the Rollins family in Bringham Young's 1848 company. Winter Quarters, Nebraska James H Rollins leaves us this account of the first winter at Winter Quarters. "When many of us crossed the river swimming our cattle across, which was a very perilous job. But we finally succeeded in this without the loss of a single animal. We went across to the cold spring...a mile or so from the crossing of the river. We remained there on a ridge until a suitable place was found. We all camped on this ridge in a string facing the south. A council was soon held at this place when it was determined for all the men that were able to go to cutting hay and stacking it up for winter use, which we accomplished in due time. After this time it was decided to all move to Winter Quarters, the place that was picked out by the President Bringham Young and council—We then commenced to build houses and dugouts in the side of the hill. I went with the company up the river some few miles, cut and rafted cottonwood logs down to Winter Quarters...I also cut logs and built a house for the wife and family of my brother-in-law, Horace Alexander, who had gone as one of the five hundred that were called to Mexico in the Battalion and they were left in my charge during his absence, and through the winter his wife took sick and died. There were 3 other children left in my care. In about a week her infant also died. I procure a box for it, and two of us carried it up the hill where we had laid its mother. We opened the grave and placed its little coffin on the mother's.” --------- March 23. During Fremont's absence, Lt. Colonel Cooke arrived in Los Angeles with one company of dragoons and four of the Mormon Battalion, including H M. Alexander to establish his headquarters there. 28 April - Company B, Mormon Battalion at San Diego. "Henry Bigler commented on 'something of a human for," who was seen on the streets of San Diego begging for food. He claimed to be one of Fremont's men and said he had been traveling in the Rocky Mountains for years. One of his shoulders was disabled and he had a wound in his head. Horace M Alexander recognized him from Missouri. The man acknowledged that he was one of the mob who massacred the saints at Haun's mill in Missouri. He begged for foregiveness. (Crocket, David, Saints Find the Place. LDS-Gems series vol 3) 28 June - "Today I was detailed to assist in building an oven in the city (Los Angeles). Col Stevenson returned today from San Diego, accompanied by Capt. Alexander, 24 of the brethren at that post had given their names to enlist again for six months on condition. “ 4 July - San Diego. "On the 4th of July, the roar of cannon at daybreak announced the seventieth annivesary of our nation's birth. Henry W Bigler's diary of the date. "These demonstrations pleased the citizens so well that they brought out all the wine and brandy we wanted and a hundred times more. In the evening, Captain Jesse D Hunter and Colonel Stevenson, with Sargent Hyde and Corporal Horace M. Alexander, who had been to Los Angeles, arrived and were heartily cheered. 16 July - H.M. Alexander is discharged at Pueblo de Los Angeles, California. He immediately heads for Salt Lake Valley by way of Sacramento and Donner Pass, arriving at Salt Lake about October 16. 1848 8 January: "Took up an appeal from Bishop Foutz by H M Alexander, case of H M Alexander vs John Bouk for non-delivery of an ox...Lyman Leonard and Daniel Spencer speakers for Plaintiff and John Murdock and Lewis Abbot for Defendant. After the case was folly traversed, Charles C Rich decided that Brother Bouk deliver the ox in question with his mate and the yoke ring and stuple belonging to them, to Brother Alexander within one week. Decission voted." Minutes of the High Council, Salt Lake City, Albert Camngton, Clerk. 20 July - H.M. Alexander travels as an express to the wagon train on the Prairie near Chimney Rock in the company with Orrin P Rockwell etc. Presumably meets up with his family and returns with the train to the Valley. "On July 20 John D Lee wrote: 'About 10 met an express from the vally to the Camp at Head Quarters carried by O.P. Rockwell, Horace Alexander, Lewis Robinson & [Scofield]. They brought first rate news from the Land that the crops were promising." "Lee evidently did not know the name of the fourth messenger, but the next day learned it, for about noon he wrote: '...L. Robinson, Alexander, Lewis Robinson, & Quincy Scofield, Messengers, returned [from visiting the rear emigration. Q. Scofield rather concluded to drive Teams to the valley for Capt. Perkins, the other 2 with 0 P Rockwell to go to the valley. "On July 20 Rockwell and three companions, Lewis Robison, Quincy Scofield, and Horace Alexander, jogged into "Separation Encampment" (so named by John D. Lee), about forty miles west of Scott's Bluff, and met Lee's company preparing to ford the Platte. After sharing lunch at the Lee table, the four men mounted and galloped to the group commanded by Brigham Young at the rear of the lengthy caravan. During his conversation with the church leader, Rockwell learned for the first time that Young had been named "prophet, seer and revelator" of the church at a conference session in Iowa on December 27, 1847. Brigham Young's succession to the highest position in the church, vacant since the death of Joseph Smith, was a mere formality. He had been the recognized leader of the Mormons since the martyrdom. This new action, however, once again created a First Presidency, with Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards as Young's counselors." "Rockwell and the three who had ridden with him from the valley rejoined Lee's company the following morning. It was decided that Quincy Scofield would stay behind and drive a team while the others rode ahead as scouts. For the next two weeks Rockwell, Robison, and Alexander scanned the plains until their eyes ached, always alert for a sudden attack by Indians. When a relief train from the valley brought extra oxen to the emigrants, Young busied himself in doling the animals out to those who needed them the most. Here occurred an incident indicative of his absolute authority over the Saints. John D. Lee described it this way; Pres. B.Y. at 8 o'clock the morning before [August 5] stopped a co. that [was] in possession [of] several yoke of cattle, converted to their own use, that had been sent from the valley for the benefit of the cos. at the discretion of Pres. B.Y. Said to the man that the cattle were the Lord's & that he was Boss of these Prairies & would dictate the Teams & see that the poor were not left behind & that he had from three to 4 yoke of la[r]ge cattle on his wagons, when there were many wagons of the same size & weight with one yoke & perhaps a yoke of cows. This is not equality, neither is it bearing each other['s] burden. . . . I am not willing to have you go ahead with more team then what is necessary . . ." "Marking an easier ford across the Platte, Rockwell pushed ahead to meet a party of Saints coming to help the new arrivals through the mountain passes between Fort Bridger and the valley. Rockwell briefed their captain) Isaac Haight, on the relative position of the approaching companies, then raced back with word that relief was on the way. He found the Mormons fighting thirst, mountain fever, and bad weather. The added hardships seemed only to increase Brigham Young's determination to reach the valley straightaway, and he refused to slacken the pace. When fever claimed one of Lee's wives, Young would not permit burial to slow the train down. Wrote Lee, "About 2 P.M. Squire Wills [Daniel H. Wells], 0. P. Rockwell & G. D. Grant was sent by Pres. B.Y. to see if J. D. Lee wanted help & insisted on his rolling out the next morning. " By September 15 the Mormons were four days from the valley; Rockwell stayed with Young's company's and entered Great Salt Lake City on September 20 to the cheers of the population which had turned out to greet the emigrants. There now were more than two thousand Saints in Zion. " (from Schindler, Harold. Orrin Porter Rockwell:Man of God, Son of Thunder The following account of crossing the plains is provided by James Henry Rollins, who cared for the surviving children of Horace Martin Alexander and Nancy R Walker Alexander. When the company started from Winter Quarters to cross the plains; Bringham Young being the leader of the Company, started ahead with his company, then Amasa Lyman’s company of a hundred wagons, then Dr. Richards the most of his company English, with Joseph Horn as Captain of the hundred in this company. The second day out we camped on the Little Horn river where we stayed two or three days, then resuming our journey to the loop fork of the Platte river when we crossed on the other side, which was very difficult to cross. Dr Richards and Company arrived on the side we had left, when it was determined to help with our lead Oxen to cross them over on the same side of the river as we were, which was accomplished that day, no accident happening to them. We remained there until the next day or two then started early for the main Platte river, 20 miles distant and when we arrived at the Platte both Dr. Richards and Amasa Lyman were taken very sick. We remained there 2 days. I killed 4 antelope on the Sunday we laid over. Our next move was up the Platte towards Fort Laramie to which place we arrived in due time. We stopped one or two days previous to reaching Laramie to hunt, as Buffaloes were quite plentiful, and supplied ourselves with meat, killing 3 buffaloes myself that day, and another which brother Flake had down. We were obliged to shoot two bulls in order to get the cow that he had killed. As we were skinning the cow, another cow had made its appearance coming down a ravine near us. I took aim and shot it, it turned, and went up the bluff. About this time brother Horn came to us and said his company had not killed anything. We told him to take the loins and hump and as much more as he wanted, out of the two bulls and go up on the bluff and. he would find a cow that he might have for his company, which he found to be very fat. We then, the next day resumed our journey towards Laramie and came to an Indian Village. . There were many tents made of buffalo hides. They impeded our progress, stopped our train by squatting in the road. They demanded pay of us for the water and grass our company had used. And the chief said, "We want you to give us flour, sugar, coffee, powder and lead." The captains of each 10 were set to work to get from the wagons these articles. The chief spreading his large buffalo robe, on which the contributions were emptied. We then asked them if they were satisfied, they said "Yes if you will give us a little more powder." They were told that we hadn't it to spare, the Indians then removed, the contents of the buffalo skin and said we could pass on our journey, and we were not troubled any more until we reached Laramie Fort, where we stopped. our train. Many Indians were there with the French who kept the Fort. The Frenchman told us not to sell the Indians any whiskey, which of course we did not do, but to sell it to them if we had any and, they would pay us a big price. Those who had it to sell, sold it to the French at a dollar a pint. Banters were out by the Indians for a horse race, and Nathan Tanner ran his horse with the Indians and beat him. Then they wanted to give him a larger horse which brother Tanner needed, and the trade was made. About this time while our people were trading for Buffalo skins, the Indian Chief was discovered to be drunk and seemed very mad as he walked through with tomyhawk in hand he cut many gashes through buffalo skins which hung on the banisters. He was watched by his squaws and one or two of the French men and taken and bound and laid away. We then resumed our journey after obtaining many buffalo skins until we came to the three crossings of Sweet Water. We camped for 2 or 3 days for the women to wash. We killed quite a number of mountain sheep and buffaloes. After 3 or 4 days we continued our journey up Sweet Water. I killed on Sweet Water, as we traveled up the stream so 20 antelope and 11 of their hides and took them to Salt Lake City and there tanned them. When we came to Pacific Springs we camped for one day. The next day we started for Bear River which we crossed safely by raising our wagon beds with blocks to keep the water from running into them. Then we resumed our way towards Green river and crossing the river we again raised our wagon boxes, and crossed without an accident. Then we wended our way over the mountains and arrived at Salt Lake some time in October being 5 months on the road from the time we started from Winter Quarters until we arrived in Salt Lake. All this I have written from memory. The records of our travels which I kept and delivered to our Captain were lost and could not be found, and at the time of this writing, I am eighty years and 6 months old. Many instances in our travels are not here related, such as losing our cattle many of them, the Indians stealing my son, who was recovered, and a daughter that was run over, but not seriously injured, and the death of Sidney Tanners little boy who fell from the wagon tongue and was instantly killed by the wagon running over his neck. He was buried near the road the same day. After arriving in Salt Lake I moved my wagon into the Old Fort, also that of Horace Alexander's family. I soon obtained a room in which we lived through the winter. In the spring I ploughed and planted about five acres of wheat, corn and some vegetable seed. James Henry Rollins 6 November - Horace M Alexander begins working for Madison Hamilton in Salt Lake City 1849 15 February - Horace M Alexander marries Catherine Houston and Martha Burnwell in Salt Lake City. 9 July - H. M. Alexander signs a “Proof of Evidence” document in Atchison county, Missouri, to the effect that he was a Private in Company B of the Mormon Battalion, and that he was discharged in the Pueblo de Los Angeles on 16 July 1847, and that he never received a certificate of discharge. Apparently he had to travel back to Missouri to sign this document in order to be eligible for 160 acres of land. 1850 Horace M Alexander is a member of the Salt Lake City police force from 1850-3, and lived in the city's 3rd Ward. 1853 4 October - Frances Evelyn Alexander, daughter of HMA and Nancy R Walker, marries Jesse P Steele at Salt Lake City. 1855 H M Alexander marries Julia Owens. H M Alexander is part of the Iron Mission and settles in Parowan, Utah. PAROWAN Southern Utah's first settlement and county seat of Iron County. An annual birthday celebration commemorates Parowan's founding on 13 January 1851, just twelve months after Parley P. Pratt and members of his exploring party discovered the Little Salt Lake Valley and nearby deposits of iron ore. On 8 January 1850 Pratt had raised a liberty pole at Heap's Spring and dedicated the site as "The City of Little Salt Lake." Based on Pratt's exploration report, Brigham Young called for the establishment of settlements in the area to produce much-needed iron implements for the pioneer state. Mormon apostle George A. Smith was appointed to head the establishment of this "Iron Mission" in 1850. The first company of 120 men, 31 women, and 18 children braved winter weather traveling south from Provo during December. They sometimes built roads and bridges as they traveled, and they finally reached Center Creek on 13 January 1851. After enduring two bitterly cold nights, they moved across the creek and circled their wagons by Heap's Spring and Pratt's liberty pole, seeking the protection of the hills. Within days, the settlement organization was completed: companies of men were dispatched to build a road up the canyon, a town site was surveyed and laid into lots, and a fort and a log council house were begun. The council house was used as church, schoolhouse, theater, and community recreation center for many years. In 1861 construction was begun on a large church building to stand in the center of the public square. The pioneers envisioned a building of three stories, built from the abundant yellow sandstone and massive timbers in nearby canyons. Known as the "Old Rock Church," the building was completed in 1867 and served as a place of worship, town council hall, school building, social hall, and tourist camp. It is now a museum of Parowan's early history. Parowan's first settlers were instructed to plant crops so that following immigrants could open up the coal and iron ore deposits, but local industries were also developed. Self-sufficiency was envisioned, and local industries included a tannery, sawmill, cotton mill, factories for making saddles and harnesses, furniture and cabinets, shoes, and guns; there also were both carpentry and blacksmith shops. The first attempts at iron manufacturing were unsuccessful, but mining in the twentieth century brought prosperity to Iron County 1858 H M Alexander is part of a panel convened by George A Smith in Parowan that clears William Dame of responsibility for the Mountain Meadow massacre. The official line on the massacre is established during this three day enquiry. See DAME Document Iron County, Utah Alexander Horace 38 M Farmer 250 400 Va Alexander Catharine 28 F Ohio Alexander Martha 29 F Ohio Alexander James 10 M UT Alexander Wm 8 M UT Alexander Hellen 6 F UT Alexander Eliza F 4 F UT Alexander Alice G 3 F UT Alexander Franklin D 2 M UT Alexander Flora A 1 F UT 1863H M Alexander returns to Springville. 1869 H M Alexander is a member of the Silver Greys in Springville, a home guard composed of young boys and older men to guard the settlements during the Black Hawk war. 1871 Nancy Cresse Walker dies in Minersville, Beaver county, Utah. 1875H. M. Alexander goes on a Mission to Iowa, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and Virginia, visiting relatives, as he travels to the locales of his youth. It is a sort of saying good-bye to relatives, some he has not met before, collecting genealogical materials, and some proselytizing thrown in as well. William C Walker is living in Hancock county, Illinois. 1881H. M. Alexander dies in Provo, Utah. 1894Diontha Walker Lyman dies in Minersville, Beaver county, Utah.

The Life History of James Henry Rollins

Contributor: SouthPawPhilly Created: 3 years ago Updated: 3 years ago

I, James Henry Rollins, began my life on the 27th of May, 1816 in Lima, Livingston, New York. I was the son of John Porter Rollins, who was born about 1794 in Rutland, Vermont, and Keziah Ketura Van Benthuysen. She was born on the 15th of May 1796 in Albany, New York. Father and Mother were married in 1815. To them were born three children; I being the eldest, followed by two sisters, Mary Elizabeth and Caroline Amelia. In 1821 my father while transporting cattle by boat to Canada through a heavy storm, was drowned in Lake Ontario, leaving Mother a widow. Proof of the death of John Porter Rollins was obtained in August 1960 from the Livingston County Courthouse, Lima, New York and is quoted as follows: The letter of Keziah Rollins to James Rosenburg was in her own handwriting. Lima, New York Jan. 24, 1822 James Rosenburgh E. Esq: Surrogate of the County of Livingston. Sir: Please be appointed Mathew Warner to estate of John P. Rollins late of Lima, deceased, as I have no relatives in this County, and you will much oblige me. Widow of the above named Keziah Rollins Reference: Geneseo Co. Seat Livingston Co. Courthouse General Index to Surrogate Records: Rollins, John P. 1822 Book I, page 233 Inventory Page 233 Inventory filed Mar. 6, 1822. Book 2nd Page, I file, 280-or 208. Also on record at this office a copy of his inventory. In 1825 I went to live in Mentor, Ohio, with my mother's sister, Elizabeth Van Benthuyusen and her husband, Algernon Sidney Gilbert, who raised me as their own. In 1826 they moved to Kirtland, Ohio. I began working in the Whitney and Gilbert store in 1828. In October 1830 Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson came to Kirtland, Ohio, to preach their first discourse, bringing with them the so-called "Gold Bible", of which I obtained a copy. I was greatly impressed with the truth of the doctrines set forth. I read the book lying on the floor at night with my head toward the fire, as candles were very scarce, and this was the only time I had to read. In December 1830 while seeking the truth from the Lord about this religion, I was shown in a vision, Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and many other wonderful things all of which have come to pass. Two months later, February 1831, at the home of my uncle, Sidney Gilbert, I had my first meeting with the Prophet Joseph Smith. While the Prophet was conversing with my Uncle about me, the Prophet said, "The Lord has shown him great things." This was speaking about me. From this time on I became personally acquitted with Joseph Smith Sr., his wife Lucy and all of their family. Don Carlos Smith and I were great chums. The 3rd to the 6th of June, 1831, the fourth Conference of the LDS Church was held at Kirtland, Ohio. At this time a revelation was given through the Prophet Joseph Smith and many were called to go to Independence, Jackson County, Missouri. Among those called with Sidney Gilbert, his wife Elizabeth and myself, I only being fifteen years of age. We arrived in Jackson Co. Missouri in July 1831. Shortly after our arrival the Lord revealed this location of the New Jerusalem and the spot upon which the Temple was to be built. Wednesday, the 3rd of August, 1831 the spot was dedicated. Thursday the 4th of August 1831 the fifth Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints and the first in the land of Zion, was held in Kan Township, Jackson Co., Missouri. Many were being baptized at this time. On June 1, 1832 I was baptized a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, about one and one-half miles west of the Temple block, in Rock Creek, Independence, Jackson County, Missouri by John Carroll. On, Friday the 1st of November 1833 the Saints in Independence were attacked by a mob and Gilbert and Whitney's store was partially destroyed, also many private dwellings. On Tuesday the 5th, the mob drove the Saints from their homes at the point of bayonet. The exiles were there by exposed to the most severe sufferings from cold and hunger. They crossed the Missouri River from Jackson County to Clay County, Missouri. Monday 3rd of June 1834 Zion's Camp arrived at a point near Liberty, Clay County, Missouri. Tuesday the 24th of June 1834 the Cholera broke out in the most terrible form in Zion's Camp. It continued its ravages for about four days. Sixty-eight of the Saints were stricken and thirteen died, among who was Sidney A. Gilbert, my foster father. Church History states, "A prominent man in the Church has passed; he expired on the 26th of June 1834. On Sunday the 27th of March 1836, the Lord's House at Kirtland, Ohio--afterwards known as the Kirtland Temple, was dedicated. I met the Prophet Joseph in September 1836, and his family, in Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri, where the Saints had gone to build up and settle in this part of the country. Monday, July 3, 1837 I attended the ground breaking for the foundation of a Temple which was never built because of persecutions. Tuesday, November 7, 1837 an important conference was held at Far West, Missouri. The Prophet Joseph Smith had arrived from Kirtland. Frederick G. Williams was rejected as a Counselor to the Prophet, and Hyrum Smith appointed in his place. In June 1838, a stake of Zion called Adam-Ondi-Ahman was organized in Davis County, Missouri. In July the cornerstone for the House of the Lord at Far West, Missouri was laid, which I attended. About October 1838 it seemed that some thing must be done to protect Adam-Ondi-Ahman, ten young men were chosen and were well equipped. Their names are as follows: Jesse D. Hunter, Darwin Chase, Chauncey L. Higbee, Joel Miles, Elisha and Elijah Everett (twins), Frank Higbee, and myself. Benson Williams Kurith and sometimes Ira Miles were with us. We were taken by the Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother to the west side of Adam-Ondi-Ahman, where they gave us instructions and orders. We were to go to Millport as speedily as possible to see if the mob were there in force, as had been reported. But they had heard of our coming and had left with a cannon with which they had threatened to blow up Adam-Ondi-Ahman. The mob had buried the cannon, but an old sow had dug around the edges, exposing it. So we took the cannon with use. (At present the cannon is located on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah.) Saturday the 27th of October 1838 Governor Boggs issued his exterminating order, which gave the Saints the choice between banishment from Missouri or death. October 30, 1838 a mob under the leadership of Col. Wm O. Jennings attacked a little settlement of Saints at Haun's Mill, Caldwell County, Missouri. At this time David Patten died and some others were killed and wounded. The next day after this, the mob gathered at Haun's Mill and killed eighteen of our brethren. Among these was a young man by the name of Oliver Cox, who was my wife's foster brother. When he was leaving home the girls cried and did not want him to go, but he said, "Never mind girls, if I die I will have my boots on and I will not be shot in the back". He was not but was shot in the abdomen. He called for water, as he did not die immediately, and the water would run out of the place where he was shot. The mob dragged him all over the shop for his boots, and they were new ones. He was yet alive when thrown in the well with the dead bodies of those that had been killed there and covered with mother earth. Many duties and assignments were mine, including dealings with the mob and giving a great deal of help to the sick and wounded. On September 4, 1838 I married Eveline Walker, at Shole Creek, Missouri, later know as Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri. On November 1, 1838 Hyrum Smith and Amasa M. Lyman were brought as prisoners into camp. A court martial was held and the prisoners were sentenced to be shot the following morning. They were, however saved through the interference of General Doniohan. November 4, 1838 General B. Clark arrived with troops and made most of the brethren prisoners. I was forced to mount behind one of the soldiers and when we arrived at Richmond courthouse General Clark appeared at the door, the soldier saying: "Here is the man you sent us for". General Clark said, "you get down off that horse and go in to the bull pen with the rest of them." This was the first intimation I had that there were others in there. I was forced into the bull pen, where sure enough I found forty or fifty of our brethren--Bishop Partridge, Isaac Morley, James & Isaac Allred and may others that I will not mention here. They were old men and also many of my former ten. I was called the next morning when court had convened and the State prosecutor read the charges, which were treason, murder, arson, larceny and burglary. He ask me if I was guilty of any of these, I told him, "No sir I am not guilty of any of them." About eleven o'clock, Friday, November 9, 1838 the Prophet Joseph Smith and Hyrum were brought into the court which was situated on the same floor where we were kept. A pole was stretched across to keep us back from Judge King and his court. I stood close to the pole at the back of Joseph and Hyrum and the lawyers Donathon and Atchison. A man was brought in as a witness against me, by the name of Odell, who testified that I had burned his house. I spoke openly, as I stood behind Joseph and Hyrum, and said "that he was a curly-headed liar." Joseph turned his head toward me and said, "Pshaw Henry, don't say anything. This saying caused some consternation in the courtroom. We were kept prisoners for several weeks At last it was agreed that we would bail each other out. Someone came and told me that my young wife had come to see me, so I was allowed to see her and if anyone appeared as an angel, she sure did to me. She had ridden on a horse from Lexington, thirty five miles. She was dressed in a black silk dress and looked very beautiful. The warden said to her, and took the name of the Lord invain, "If as beautiful a woman as you are, had a husband in jail, you sure shall see him," Donathon and Atchison, the lawyers, took me to Gudgel Hotel to see her. They said that I could stay with my wife that night. They put us in a room six by eight with two guards in the room, with their heads against the door. I was taken very sick in the night and my wife was obliged to go out over the guard's bed to hunt the nurse to get some medicine to relieve my pain. The guard was determined not to let her go out, when my brother-in-law, Mr. Carr, said "Oh let her go." He was one of the mob. About ten o'clock in the morning I succeeded to obtaining bail. My bail was fixed for all of those crimes and was signed by the notorious Beauguard Methodist preacher, Nathaniel Carr, my brother-in-law. Wednesday, November 28, 1838 some forty or fifty brethren were released, except Joseph the Prophet and Hyrum. Soon after this was settled I obtained a horse, saddle and bridle and started with my wife, on the same horse, for Far West. It was quite cold and we had ride and run alternately to get warm, until we arrived, wearied, in the night. We had not been home long, when Beauguard appeared in Far West, and exacted my step-father's hotel; my father-in-law's hundred acres of land and forty acres of my land, and at least one thousand dollars, for my bail, or he would take me back to prison. Some of the land he wanted lay three miles from Haun's Mill. Beauguard, that evening, took me upstairs and told me that if I didn't produce those men to go my security the next day he would take me back to prison. About this time my wife's brother William Walker, brought a horse, saddle and bridle and told me to take the horse and skip. I saddled up the horse and Mother gave me sixteen dollars to start with. C. O. Higbee and myself started together. The young people of Far West had gathered at a house half a mile out of town to bid us goodbye. We left them and rode twenty-five miles that night and came to a deserted house. After feeding our horses some corn that was in the crib, we lay down and remained there until daylight, when we proceeded on our journey. At sunset that day we crossed the mouth of the Grand River, one hundred miles from Far West, where we put up at a house on the south side of Grand River and stayed all night. Next morning we started on our journey toward Quincy. We stopped again that night and put up at a hotel. We learned that the Mississippi River was full of ice, so we were not able to cross. A great many of our people were there. This was the fifth day of our journey. I followed down the river alone and obtained a crossing at Clarksville. The same day I arrived at Alton at nine o'clock having ridden the same horse three hundred and fifty miles in five days. I found my brother-in-law there; also found a home and resting place. The colic which was very severe. My brother-in-law and another man took me to upper Alton where I had the attention that a family doctor was able to give. I was in a very bad condition for several days, but hearing about this time, that Beauguard was in pursuit of me, I saddled my horse and rode some sixty miles into Magovina County. I stopped to rest my horse and started cutting rails for a man by the name of Hains. On the last day I worked for him, which was a Saturday, I had cut a large bur Oak tree. I made forty rails of one half of the butt cut. I then ate my lunch and lay down on the flat side of the other half of the oak and fell asleep. While lying there I received the plain, audible words, "Your wife, Eveline, is in Alton, if you want to see her, hurry". I sprang from the log and looked around, expecting to see someone near me, but to my great surprise I saw no one. I immediately gathered up my ax and dinner bucket and started for the house, some half or three quarters of a mile distant. When I arrived at the house, the lady saw that I was very pale and ask me if I was sick. I said that I did not feel very well, and I thought I would go on my way in the morning toward Louisville. The next morning was a very bad morning, snowing and blowing. I could not see the road and it was dangerous to cross the prairies. I returned and stayed that night with Mr. Hains. Monday was clear and nice, the wind having cleared the road. I road across the prairies eighteen miles, and came to a small town; had a strange experience with a stranger who tried to delay me. After about an hour I was again on my way, wending my tiresome journey, and arrived at the place where I was so eager to stop, thinking I might find a resting place for awhile. I was worn out with worry and loss of sleep. While riding I met a boy at Wood River Bridge, one mile from Alton. I quickly inquired of him if my wife was in Alton. He said, "Yes", she is in very bad at her brother's John Walker, and if you want to see her alive, hurry", the same words that were said to me when I lay asleep by the log. I surely did hurry my jaded horse, and landed on the door step of John Walker's house. There I found my warning true in every sense, as the doctor and women were just putting my wife in bed, as I arrived. She had been expected to die for days previous to this. Soon after I arrived she recovered. Then I rented a house large enough for my family, my wife's brother's family. Here at Alton, Sioux, Iowa our first son Horace Algernon Rollins was born, 30 June 1839. Soon my sister's family, Adam Lightner, returned from Louisville, Kentucky and lived with us. Then we moved to Clifton, six miles above Alton and obtained a house large enough for three or four families to live in. Here at Clifton our first son, Horace Algernon died, November 1839. We had discouraging experiences trying to freight my boat to Alton and St. Louis. I disposed of my share of the boat to my other partners, and with my wife we boarded the boat or steamer "Austria" and set sail for Montrose in Iowa, opposite Nauvoo, and stayed with Isaac Bebee for a night and next morning started a foot for my mother's home. It was a fatiguing journey for my wife to walk. I helped to plant crops on a large farm, which farm produced abundantly. My step-father, John M. Burke, and mother moved to Nauvoo. Soon after their departure I received a letter written by William Clayton, and signed by Joseph Smith, the Prophet. It said that I "should come to Nauvoo immediately". I therefore went the next day. I ask the Prophet Joseph Smith what he wanted of me. He inquired as to what I had in Alton, Sioux, Iowa. I told him I had a few effects. He said, "Go back and arrange things over there; dispose of them and move to Nauvoo, that he wanted me there." I did as he advised. On April 13, 1843 my wife's father, Oliver Walker, died in Nauvoo, Illinois. I moved to Nauvoo in December 1843. My wife had been very sick several weeks previous to the birth of this child and her life despair of, and at the same time my little son, John Henry was sick with measles and canker. I asked Joseph, the Prophet, to call if possible, and see my wife. He did and administered to her and the little boy, and promised them that they would get well, which they did. This was a great testimony to us, for which we thanks our Heavenly Father. The next morning I reported at the store. The Prophet took me to the back of the store and showed me the cords of hickory wood. He ask if I would a good hand with the ax. I laughed and said, "Well some". I ask for a sharp ax. He turned to Loren Walker and produced the ax. I chopped the wood and piled it up the same day. The next day he came to the store and unbarred the outside door to the cellar and unlocked it, and ask me to straighten up things. Which I did and he was well pleased with my job at the end of the day. About this time Lyman Wight and Amasa Lyman and Henry G. Sherwood came up the river from the south with 25 barrels of Orleans sugar and several hogshead of the same, and several barrels of molasses. Edward Hunter also came with a large supply of dry goods from Philadelphia. The Prophet told me to harness up his old Charlie and take Brother Hunter around to view the City and to see Joseph's farm, and to answer as near as possible, all the questions he might ask. This I endeavored to do and it seemed to please Brother Hunter very much. He told Joseph that when he sent to his house for goods, to send me, and I took very much pleasure in serving. January 29, 1844 at a political meeting, held at Nauvoo, Joseph Smith was nominated a candidate for President of the United States. A mass meeting was called on the hill west of the Temple by Joseph and when speeches were made by both parties. Joseph arose to speak and told the people this was a free country and they could vote as they pleased. Soon after this time Joseph wrote the key to his policy on the government of the United States called, "Views of the Powers and Policy of the Government of the United States. Some two months after this his store was closed for good. I ask him one day what he wanted me to do. He said, "Go and work on the Temple". They said if I would work with them for six months they would teach me the trade. I then started to work with Harry Stanley, a brother-in-law, to the Cahoon boys. He said he would allow me twelve dollars for the first month and raise my wages five dollars every month for three months after the first, and thirty dollars a month for the last two months. I accepted his proposition, he agreed to furnish me with some provisions, if he had to divide his portion which he drew from the tithing office. The next day with Brother Stanley's help I cut the diamond arch stone. From then on I could cut the stones without help. Provisions being scarce, were taken from my family, but Brother Player, the main workman on the wall of the Temple, and William Ibicks, the arch architect, talked the matter over with Father Cutler-approved my work, so I was declared to be able to cut on my own, and could receive provisions for my family which were greatly appreciated. Benjamin Mitchell came to me to rough out a capstone for him and one for Charles Lambert, which I did. Brother Player and the architect came to me and told me to take one of the capital stones and dress it. I told them I didn't think I was capable of cutting one of those stones., but they persuaded me to try it and they would help me out. I did so with humbleness and with the help of my Heavenly Father, I accomplished the task and it was raised on the northeast corner of the Temple Wall, being the last capital stone raised on the wall. I then did other work on the Temple, except the work on the oxen. This Temple, Joseph said, must be built and finished for endowments and for the work in five years, or the Lord would reject them and their dead. The upper part of the building was finished and part of the lower, within the specified time. On Wednesday, February 21 a meeting of the Apostles was held at Nauvoo for the purpose of selecting a company to explore Oregon and California and the west, for a good location to which the saints could remove after the completion of the Temple. On Sunday 25th Joseph Smith prophesied that in five years the saints would be out of the power of their old enemies, apostates of the world. March 4th it was decided in council meeting at Nauvoo to cease work on the Nauvoo House until the Temple was completed. Saturday, April 6th, a conference, which lasted five days, commenced at Nauvoo. The prophet spoke to 20,000 saints on the 7th and 8th. He declared the whole of North and South American to be the land of Zion. The next Saturday 210 Saints arrived from England and on the 18th, 81 Saints arrived from Liverpool led by Hiram Clark. There was much counsel and talk by the leading Authorities of the Church to the saints about moving to the mountains. Trouble began. The Warsaw Signal paper was filled with all kinds of rubbish and slander against the Prophet and the Saints. Houses, barns, and stacked were burned by the mob, which was in the Morley settlement south of Nauvoo and south east of Warsaw. This burning of houses continued for some time. The work of the mob was egged on by the apostates until Governor Ford's army gathered in Carthage, when Joseph and Hyrum were taken as prisoners. I saw the Prophet in his military costume, standing on the porch of the frame building speaking to the numerous people that were gathered around. This was the day before he was taken to Carthage. Then the next day Joseph and Hyrum, Dr. Richards and John Taylor were put in the Cartage Jail. June 26, 1844 Governor Ford pledge himself and the State that they should not be harmed, and placed the Carthage Greys to guard them. He, the Governor, would go to Nauvoo. But his scheme was well planned. While in Nauvoo the Carthage Greys withdrew and a posse of murders with blackened faces came from the different direction and stormed the jail; commenced shooting through a small opening in the door. They shot and hilled Hyrum Smith and wounded John Taylor. Joseph ran to the window, where he was shot and fell out of the window near the well curb. One of the murderers drew a long knife and stepped up to Joseph to sever his head from his body, when to their great surprise a streak of light came from Heaven and struck this man; knocked him back and stayed his hand from cutting off the Prophet's head. The history of their assassination is more minutely described in the Church History-this terrible massacre--than I am able to write at this time. Their bodies were brought into Nauvoo and they lay there in state at the Mansion House, and were viewed by thousands of Saints who were in deep mourning for their Prophet and Patriarch. The mob and apostates thought that if they were killed it would put a stop to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, but to their surprise and chagrin the Lord raised up other men to look after His people. The Saints were stronger and closer and more faithful than ever, and they have grown and increased ever since. On Saturday, May 24, 1845 President Brigham Young and others appeared at Nauvoo and took part in the laying of the capstone of the Temple, in the presence of a large number of Saints. On Friday, June 27th being the first anniversary of the martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, the day was spent in prayer and fasting by the Saints. July 7th, 1845 Ephraim Edward our fourth child was born in the City of Joseph, Illinois. Saturday, August 23, 1845 the dome of the Nauvoo Temple was raised. In September one hundred and thirty five teams were sent from Nauvoo to bring in the families and grain from the surrounding country. The few Saints who still remained at Kirtland, Ohio were persecuted by their enemies, who took possession of the Temple. Wednesday, the 24th of September, 1845, as the persecutions in Hancock County continued to rage, the Saints commenced to leave their possessions in the smaller settlements and flee to Nauvoo for protection. The authorities of the Church made a proposition to the mob to have the Saints leave the following spring. Tuesday, the 30th General John J. Hardin arrived at Nauvoo with four hundred troops, pretending to hunt for criminals. October 1st the Apostles had an important consultation in Nauvoo with General John J. Hardin, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, W. B. Warren and J.A. McDougal, commissioners from a convention held in Carthage, about the removal of the Saints. General John J. Hardin was considered a great general in the U.S. Government. On Monday the 6th of October a general conference of the Saints, the first in three years, was held in the Temple. The Prophet Joseph having ordered that they should not hold another general conference until it could be held in the Temple. The day before, on Sunday the 5th, a meeting was held in the Temple and around 5,000 people attended. During the month of December many of the Saints received their endowments in the Nauvoo Temple. Brigham Young told the people to prepare themselves for their exit west across the Mississippi River. My step-father, John Burk and son, with my self, went to work to get timber for wagons, such as fellies, spokes and hubs for the wheels of three wagon. The first one we finished we sold to Orson Hyde for $75.00 in gold. It was decided that I should go to Quincy, Illinois, with money and buy iron to finish up the other two wagons. They worked in my absence and when I returned with the iron they soon finished the two wagons, my step-father and son took one and me the other. During the latter part of the winter of 1845 and the first part of 1846, I went to Hannibal, Missouri with Frank Cutler, in search of goods that were landed by a steamer somewhere below Quincy. We found they were landed at Hannibal, Missouri across the river, for Amos Davis a merchant of Nauvoo. Because of the great flow of ice in the Mississippi River, we arrived opposite Hannibal. We found the river frozen sufficiently to bear out wagons. We crossed the river, loaded the goods and returned safely back to the other side. When we arrived at Nauvoo we unloaded and found that many of the goods were much needed by the people. Davis retained me for a few days to clerk in his store, then he sent me and William Empey to St. Louis for more goods which was necessary for the people to have, both in the Temple and on their journey west. On our return Davis again retained me in the store, our trip being so satisfactory. I helped him for a few days. They were giving endowments in the Temple at Nauvoo and on the last day of the Temple work, myself and wife went through with a great throng of people and received our endowments and were sealed for time and all eternity, the 3rd of Feb 1846. I was told the next day to take my wagon and team and cross the river with some of the Twelve's family, which I did. I crossed the river on the ice to the Iowa side and at the same time all of the Twelve crossed the river to Montrose. My wagon and team and contents went out to Sidney Tanner's a few miles distant west, and remained there for four or five days until Brother Tanner's family were also ready to go with us to Sugar Creek, where the Twelve were gathered with many others. We remained there for a few days during which a violent wind and storm came upon us in the night. The guard could keep no fire, and it was intensely cold for the women and children, and also for the men on guard, and teams tied to wagons and trees. A few days after this we started on our western journey, crossing the Des Moines river, which was accomplished in two days. After starting, much flour was purchased in Farmington before crossing the river, and we pursued our journey until we came to Richardson's Point. Then it commenced raining and continued for many days and nights. We then got dry bark and laid from the wagons to the fire which made a path for the women to walk on, in order to cook our food. Wednesday, February 18th, 1846 Brigham Young sent word to me that I must return to Nauvoo with my team and bring my own family, which I had left all this time in Nauvoo, and for us to come as soon as possible. Alexander McCray accompanied me back. We passed through Farmington and after crossing the Des Moines River, we camped in the woods outside of town. Then at night I went to see my sister Caroline, who lived in this place. This was the last I ever saw her. I returned to my wagon, and I and Mr. McCray went to bed. In the early morning I went to feed my horses in my feed box. As I approached my animals, one of them was frightened and pulled so hard on the rope that he broke his neck, but having an extra animal I crossed the Mississippi that day and went to work to trade my horses for oxen. I then took my family and effects and found Horace Alexander and family with no team to draw their wagon. I furnished my best yoke of oxen to draw their wagon and family. We pursued our journey toward Council Bluffs with Hector Haight and his Father and Mother. The roads were almost impassable most of the way, and the Saints suffered much from cold and exposure, the weather being very windy and stormy. Friday, March 27th Brigham Young was elected president over all the camps of Israel. He had been very busy organizing the camps and groups. A temporary settlement was commenced at Garden Grove for the benefit of the companies which should follow. Word was received on Thursday, April 10, 1846 that the Nauvoo Temple was dedicated privately by Elder Joseph Young. Then on May 1, 1846 the Nauvoo Temple was publicity dedicated by Apostle Orson Hyde. The following Sunday about 3,000 Saints met in the Temple and Apostle Wilford Woodruff preached. On Monday May 11th part of the company from Garden Grove journeyed and on the 18th arrived at the middle fork of Grand River on the land of the Pottawattamie Indians, where another temporary settlement was established called Mount Pisgah. This was 172 miles from Nauvoo. Tuesday June 30, 1846 Capt. Allen arrived at Council Bluffs, and on the following day met with the Authorities of the Church, showing his authority for raising five hundred volunteers from the camps of the Church. The same day President Young and Capt. Allen addressed the Saints and they voted unanimously to comply with the request of the government. There were 14 companies camped on the bluffs near Missouri River. President Brigham Young and others went back to Mount Pisgah. They passed eight hundred wagons and carriages. They talked to the Saints in Mount Pisgah about the battalion marching to California and Sixty-six volunteered. President Brigham Young sent a letter to Garden Grove to Nauvoo. Then they returned to Council Bluffs on the 12th of July 1846. While organizing these troops severe persecutions were raging the remaining Saints at Nauvoo. Kane and Allen said the government would give us the liberty to cross the Mississippi River and build for ourselves in Indian Territory--a place for the winter quarters for our people. We crossed the river, swimming our cattle, which was a very perilous job, but we finally succeeded without the loss of a single animal. We went across to the cold springs on the other side, a mile or so from the crossing of the river. It was decide that the men should cut hay and stack it up for winter use. After this it was decided that all should move to Winter Quarters, President Young and the Council making the decision. We immediately began to build houses and dugouts in the same hill. I went with the company up the river, cut and rafted logs down to Winter Quarters. I came very near getting my leg taken off by the raft, in landing it. I sprang from the raft with the rope to fasten and stop it. As I jumped for the shore the bank gave way from under my feet, just as the raft struck the bank, but I saved myself and succeeded in stopping it. I also cut logs to build a house for my family and my brother-in-law's--Horace Alexander--who had gone as one of the five hundred that we called to Mexico in the battalion. His family were left in my charge during the winter of 1846 and 1847. His wife gave birth to a child; she had what the doctor called "black leg". She died Jan. 28, 1847 and was buried on the hill. In a week or so the infant died, and we opened the mother's grave and placed its little coffin on its mother's., There were three little girls left my sister-in-law, Nancy Reeder Walker, the wife of Horace Martin Alexander, she being the sister of my wife Eveline Walker. These three little girls were cared for by Nancy's sisters and mother. We started to build a fort, the Omaha Indians and the Sioux were at war with each other, and a great many Indians were wounded, and would pass by us coming from the battle up the river. In the spring of 1847 after the pioneers left, we plowed and planted corn, squash, melons, etc. In the late fall teams and wagons were sent back the purpose of furnishing those that had none, that they might pursue their journey west. John Gleason and myself herded oxen for others, in the river bottom about twenty-five miles, so that the teams would be ready for the spring of 1848. The organized emigration from the Missouri River to Great Sale Lake City in 1848 was divided into three divisions in charge of the First Presidency of the Church; namely the first division in charge of President Brigham Young; second division in charge of President Heber C. Kimball; third division in charge of President Willard Richards. President Willard Richards, lead of the third division, which comprised five companies: 502 white, 24 negroes, 169 wagons, 50 horses, 20 mules, 515 oxen, 426 cows and loose cattle, 369 sheep, 63 pigs, 5 cats, 170 chickens, 40 turkeys, 7 ducks, 5 doves and 3 goats. This division left the Elkhorn River July 10, 1848. On August 19, 1848, five weeks on our journey, Ephraim Edward our son, three years old, died. We had to bury him by the trail. I was a caption of one group. In my group was Dionitia W. Lyman, sister to my wife, and wife of Amasa Lyman; Eveline Walker Rollins, my wife; Kaziah V. B. Rollins, my own mother, Hannah Humes, and English convert to the Church, who later became my second wife. Our children, John Henry 8, Mary Amelia age 5, Ephraim Edward age 3, My mother-in-law Nancy Cressy Walker and the tree children of the wife of Horace Alexander. The wife had died and the children were left in the care of their Grand-mother, Nancy Cressy Walker. Horace Alexander was with the Mormon Battalion. We were five months from Nauvoo and three months from Elkhorn River on our trip to the Salt Lake Valley. Time was taken out at Platts River, two days, to supply ourselves with meat. I was successful and blessed to kill three buffalo. I gave one to one of the other companies. The Captains of the company held a council and answered their request. Banters were out by the Indians for a horse race. Mathan Tanner ran his horse with the Indians and beat; then the Indians wanted to give him a longer horse, which Brother Tanner needed--the trade was made. We pursued our journey to Sweet Water; camped for two days for the women to wash. We killed quite a number of mountain sheep and one buffalo, which replenished our supplies. Next day I killed twenty antelope. The Lord was really blessing us in providing meat. One evening while baking bread and cooking around the camp fire, a number of Indians asked for the bread, grabbing it as fast as it was baked. An old Indian stole our eldest son, John Henry. Our son seven years of age was nearly smothered because he was held so tight under the blanket, so he could not be heard. We were all frightened. On returning to camp we knelt and gave thanks to our Heavenly Father for his safe recovery. Then Mary, only five years, fell and the wheel of the wagon ran over her log. Sidney Tanner's little boy, who fell from the wagon tongue, was instantly killed, the wagon running over his neck. He was buried by the road. When we arrived in Salt Lake we were met by Horace Alexander, coming to meet his wife and children. He had returned with the Mormon Battalion but had never received the same news that his wife and baby had died.. This was a sad, heartbreaking experience and my wife's mother (his mother-in-law) had to tell him the sad news. Living quarters were obtained. I took up land in the Big Field, starting to prepare for a garden. We were in the 14th Ward in the Old Fort. February 16, 1849 Nancy Eveling was born, in the Great Valley of Salt Lake. In October 1849 President Brigham Young called several missionaries to the Sandwich Islands. George Q. Cannon, Charles C. Rich and myself. We followed the old Spanish Trail and Captain Hunt in charge, who offered to show us the way to California for $1,000.00. We lost our way, then crossed over the mountain where we came to a place called Little Salt Lake. It is now called Parowan. Crossing the Mojave Desert we had many experiences with heat, cold and thirst, and I had the flu and was very ill. The elders layed hands on my head, the Lord greatly blessed me and I was able to continue on. We arrived at the Williams Ranch and stopped for thirty days - the rain poured down. We moved on to San Francisco, trading and buying provisions as we went along, finally making our way back to Salt Lake, arriving Oct. 6, 1850. While in California I washed a good portion of gold in various places. I paid Bro. Rich $40.00 in tithing. He said "you will get this back before you know it". In less than a half hour I washed out $90.00 and then picked up a nugget weighing twelve and one-half ounces. I sold it for $16.00. I paid tithing freely on all my diggings. I returned home and found my family well. However, the cost of living was high, paying 25 cents a pound for flour, and my family was boarding immigrants in order to make a livelihood. We resided in the 14th Ward during the winter - 1850. February 23, 1851 Apostle Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich were called and set apart in Salt Lake by President Brigham Young, to take a company of prospective settlers to California. I was called to go to California and tke my family. Hannah Humes, the English immigrant who had been living with us, wanted to go. President Young advised that I marry her and take her with us. We were married March 3, 1851 and sealed in the Council House. I sold my city lot in the 14th Ward to William Grover for $200.00. I received in payment one yoke of oxen and the balance in cash. On the 5th day of March 1851 we started our journey to Cottonwood, then with others went on to Payson. On March 22, 1851 the company was organized. Rendezvous was made at Peteetneet (Payson, Utah). It consisted of five hundred saints with one hundred fifty wagons, divided into companies of tens, fifties and one hundred and fifty wagons journeying together. Apostle Parley P. Pratt with seven missionaries with their wives and families joined us. We left Payson March 24, 1851. While in Payson James Pace had built a log house. President Young called a meeting there and counseled the saints to obey the laws and be faithful and true to their obligations to the church. The journey commenced under the leadership of Charles C. Rich and Amasa Lyman, and proceeded, during which much suffering was endured from thirst while crossing the desert. We arrived in Iron County (Cedar) and stopped at a place called Red Creek, and stayed for a few days. I traded with John Toppin for a yoke of oxen, which was much larger than my own. We then proceeded on our way, going to by the old Spanish trail to the Clara River. We met with much difficulty as grass was very scarce for the number of animals we had, and water only in long stretches, and which we found to be very scarce. We traveled down the Virgin River some forty miles crossing the river thirteen times. At one crossing, the first one going over was Brother Smith's cart, occupied with young negroes. It was turned over by the current but none were lost. We went on to the Muddy, nothing particular transpiring. The weather was very warm and hot. We took two or three days to rest our animals before crossing the fifty mile desert which was between us and Vegas. We crossed this in good time. How long we remained at Vegas I do not remember. We passed on from this to other watering places until we arrived at Resting Springs, where we remained a couple of days as grass and water very good. We proceeded on, passed the Salt Springs and arrived in a couple of days at Bitter Springs, a very desolate place. There was scarcely any feed for stock and water was very bad. We were very dry and hot and so were the stock. Our men had to fight back our stock with poles, until the women could get some water to cook with. We moved on to Mojave. The first fifteen miles were traveled in the night as the road was very sandy and to the top of the ridge--the weather very hot--which divided us from the Mojave Valley. As we turned over the mountain, the wind was blowing very hard. We were then about 18 miles from the Mojave River on a down-hill grade most of the way. After we had gone down some eight or ten miles our cattle commenced bawling and making a terribly fuss as they could smell the water, and they quickened their pace, the loose stock leaving the train to reach the water. Some of the men loosened their cattle from their wagons and let them go as they were very dry. Sister Mariah Lyman and children were left on the road until the next day. Most of us arrived at the Mojave in the night. I found the next morning, very early, as I went to the spring for water, a shot pouch and belt which contained gold specimens from the Salt Springs, which I found later belonged to a man by the name of Sublarit, who had taken it off at the spring late at night and forgot to put it back on. We proceeded up the river for one hundred miles to the upper crossing of the Mojave River, the water raising only in pools along the trail, sinking and rising in different places. We left this stream and it was eighteen miles before we reached the top of Cajon Pass and camped. We then passed down the other side the next day. The mountain was very steep and sandy and we had some difficulty to clear the road down the canyon. The following day we arrived at the mouth of the pass, where we found a nice spring of water, at which place we camped, May 28, 1851. Here Elder Pratt and his company left the caravan and proceeded onward to the Pacific Coast to embark for South American and the Pacific Island. The rest of the Saints camped at Cajon Pass to wait for a location to be secured at which to settle. On July 5th, 1851 a conference was held in the camp, at which Elders Lyman and Rich were sustained as the presiding authorities of the Church in California. A branch was organized called California Brach, David Seely president; counselors Samuel Wolfe and Simon Andrews. A High Council was also chosen July 6, 1851. I was called and set apart as a member of this council. Williams Crosby was made Bishop of the New Branch with Robert M. Smith and Albert W. Collins as his counselors. Another camp was made by some of the brethren about a mile distant. We remained here about three months. While camped here, on July 13, 1851 my wife Eveline gave birth to a daughter, whom we named Melissa Keziah Rollins. The same day Dan Clark's wife also gave birth to a daughter, which they named Melissa. They were both born under a large sycamore tree and it was called Sycamore camp. During this time we were scarce of provisions. Brothers Rich and Lyman went to San Francisco and purchased flour and articles for the camp; brought them by boat to St. Pedro, seventy miles distant, and when received in camp, was distributed to those that were most needy. In June two schools were started, I taught one, J. P. Lee and daughter Lucinda, the other. Later Daniel Thomas took over teaching in my school. On Sept. 22, 1851 Elder Lyman and Rich concluded arrangements for the purchase of a tract of land contained from 80,000 to 100,000 acres, which was known locally as the San Bernardino Ranch. The price was $77,000.00 on time payments. The first payment being made the Saints moved to their new home, which as twelve below their previous camping place. With the energy and perseverance Characterist of Latter-day Saints empire builders, they at once selected a town site which was surveyed, and although the City was not legally incorporated until 1854 permission was obtained from the State Officials to hold an election at which time two justices of the peace and two constables were chosen. This precaution was necessary as the Indians in the district assisted by a few renegade whites, of the Mormon Battalion as captain, and a fort erected covering about eight acres of land. By the end of the year 1851 one hundred dwellings had been built in side the fort in which at least that number of families were housed. A ditch had been dug bringing water from nearly creeks, and a canvas pavilion had been constructed which was used as a school during the week, in which about 125 pupils received instructions from a teacher, William Stout. Sacrament meetings and other Church assemblies were also held in this pavilion. With in the fort a flowing well had been driving in case the water supply from the creeks should be cut off by the Indians. On April 29, 1852 a son was born to my second wife Hannah. We named him Alonzo Leonadis Rollins, he died May 1, 1852. We raised a large amount of grain, wheat, corn and barley. Also vegetables of all kings. In the spring of 1852 I built an adobe house and a mill. Then a large saw mill was erected by Isaac Grundy and myself. We then built a large building for a storehouse near the mill, to store flour. Flour was $16.00 per hundred. We sold large quantities of our flour at this price during 1852-53. In 1854 we sold large quantities of lumbar. San Bernardino County was organized in 1853. Elders David Seeley, Henry G. Sherwood, and John Brown were chosen as commissioners. The century Annals of San Bernardino County gives the names of heads of families at San Bernardino at that time, and the local reports state that the Mormons were ideal colonists. After the organization of the county more colonists from Utah came to the settlement, and also a number of non-Mormons including some Jews. So it was necessary to secure more land and part of the Chino (or Williams) ranch was purchased by the settlers. As payments on the land became due the people united in their efforts to meet the deficiency by selling some of their cattle, produce and other things, and by making a strenuous effort to pay for their own holdings, that the means might be used by their leaders. Some of the men were appointed to go to the gold mines in an effort to raise funds did not meet with much success, as they found the miners discouraged and in an almost starving condition. However, in due time the indebtedness was duly wiped out. On Feb. 11, 1854 my second wife gave birth to a daughter, Caroline Elizabeth Rollins, and on Nov. 10, 1854 my first wife Eveline gave birth to a son Charles Lyman Rollins, he being names after the leaders, Rich and Lyman. In November 1853 I was commissioner and on the school board. June 5, 1854 San Bernardino City was incorporated and I was elected City Treasure. In December 1854 I was appointed District Attorney for San Bernardino District. I went into the mercantile business with Mr. Miner. We purchased goods from San Frisco, such as bacon and hams at five cents a pound; cook stoves at sixteen dollars; calico at five centers per yard. At the end of the year I bought my partner out, built me a nice home out of adobes-four rooms, which cost me $800.00. I paid two thousand dollars on the ranch I purchased from Lyman and Rich; three city lots besides my homestead and two lots I bought from William Stout for $700.00; also seventy-two acres of land for which I paid the sum of $700.00; and a five acre lot south of General Rich’s home. I went in partners with Lyman, Rich, and Hopkins. We went to San Francisco and purchased ten thousand dollars worth of goods. We shipped them on a schooner for St. Pedro, one passage down costing us nothing. In going down the coast we encountered some very high winds and high waves, which broke into the cabin windows as we lay in our berths, in the night. Hopkins said “Brother Rich catch my boots” as the water was a foot or more deep in the cabin. The next day or two after this boat was becalmed among the Annagapus Islands. There were many whales, as long as our vessel, came a round our ship, which was wonderful for me to behold. The wind raised that evening. We pressed on our way to San Pedro, where we arrived in safety. I forgot to say that on our upper trip on the steamer, Sea Bird, her shaft was broken when we were opposite Monterey, and we were carried hither and thither for several days, some of the time out of sight of land. We finally landed on Point Conception, where we obtained water, beef, and provisions, of which we were entirely out. About this time the United States steamer had been searching for us for several days, they found us at this point. She hitched on to our steamer and towed us to San Francisco. We then hurriedly purchased our goods and loaded them on the schooner “Laura Bevin” and started on our homeward trip as described before. About this time Hopkins drew out of the store. In 1855 I loaded goods and took them to Salt Lake City and then returned to California. On Oct. 5, 1855 Nancy Eveline Rollins, our daughter six years old going for a buggy ride, fell from the buggy into a creed and died. In 1856 my second wife gave birth to a son, George Woodville Rollins, and on the 24th of May 1856 my first wife, Eveline gave birth to a son, James Watson Rollins. On the 4th of July 1856 two thousand members of the Branch sat down to a feast at San Bernardino, of which joy and happiness prevailed except that a few apostate Mormons and Spaniards caused a disturbance. Shortly after this a general reformation took place, most of the Saints being re-baptized, as many as one hundred a day being reported. At this time in the community we had 12,000 cows, California steers, 618 (American) oxen, 230 horses, 1,383 mules, 229 sheet, 3,917 goats, 505 hogs, 7 saw mills, 2 shingle mills, and 2 grist mills in operation. San Bernardino was the rendezvous for many missionaries sailing for foreign lands from the Pacific ports, and many returning missionaries with their small companies of migrating saints, would spend some time in the settlements before proceeding to the Salt Lake. As is always the case when the success of Mormon Colonists attract a number of Adventurers and land sharks, the political situation in San Bernardino became tense and election days a time of tumult, and many of the remembered with yearning in their hearts, the peaceful vales in Utah. Hence most of the Saints rendered willing obedience to the instructions of President Brigham Young in 1857 to the effect that the San Bernardino settlers should return to Utah and the “Valleys of the Mountains” to defend their mountain homes from invasion of Johnston’s Army, which on account of misrepresentation by enemies of the saints, was approaching the boards of Utah. At the close of 1858 only a few of the saints were left in San Bernardino. During their six years sojourn in San Bernardino, however, these Mormon colonists made an enviable record and a name that is referred to in history in terms of commendation and respect. The Judge in writing his diary concerning San Bernardino in Oct. 1856 says: “At this time the Mormons are at the hey day of their progress and prosperity, with good crops and their lumber mills prospering and plenty comfort around them. Their leaders of most note are President Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich. Other prominent men are Captain Jefferson Hunt, James Henry Rollins, Judge D. M. Thomas, Richard Hopkins, David Seely and Bishop Wm. Crosby. In 1857 we were busy improving our places, making orchards and farming; working in the store of making new buildings. I was a candidate for assessor of San Bernardino County, and was elected. It was at this time when we were called by President Brigham Young back to the Great Salt Lake Valley. The Elders were called home from Foreign Missions, and the Saints that had settled Southern California were advised to abandon their locations and to return to locations nearer the headquarters of the Church. By April the 16th, 1857 the teams of Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich and others, including myself and families, making quite a train, left San Bernardino, California for Great Salt Lake Valley. There were twelve wagons each drawn by 14 mules. We sacrificed our land and homes, bringing goods from the store and household things. As we were coming on the road my eldest son, John Henry was driving a team of three spans of mules, with my wife Eveline and children in the wagon. We were trailing along the Mojave. We had started out early that morning and were a few miles ahead of the train. As he drove around a point of a mountain, two big buck Indians came down upon them and grabbed the leaders (mules) and swung them around and almost turned the wagon over. My wife being with child and holding the baby that was eleven months old, jumped from the wagon. The Indians threatened to shoot John Henry with their bows and arrows. He stood them off with a loaded black whip. At this juncture when they were about to shoot my boy, the train of wagons came around the point of the mountain and the Indians fled up into the mountains. This frightened my wife so that from that time on the rest of the journey she was confined to her bed and we came very near losing her. She lost the child she was carrying. When we arrive at Cedar City, Utah, we stayed there for several weeks until my wife could regain her strength. While we were settlements there, which we did. Not being able to obtain a house in Cedar City to live in, I moved my family to Parowan. Where I found a house which I obtained from Job Hall. I remained in Parowan for a little over a year. While there Hannah, my second wife, gave birth to a son, Francis Robert Rollins in Nov. 18, 1858. By now (1858) San Bernardino, California was vacated by the Saints, who removed to Utah, most of them settling in Parowan and Beaver. I moved my family to Minersville. The following taken from the Encyclopedia-History of the Church by Jensen. February 18, 1858. “James H. Rollins was appointed to be the Bishop of Minersville Ward”. The Ward was organized by Lyman and Rich and was first called the Lower Beaver Ward. Most of the inhabitants of the settlement are farmers but mining of precious metals had occasionally been carried out somewhat extensively, making Minersville a supply center. The mines in the neighborhood suggested the name of the town. Nearly every thing raised in the gardens and farms matures early in Minersville, about three weeks earlier than at Beaver. The land is irrigated from Beaver Creek, below the mouth of Minersville Canyon. Isaac Grundy, Jesse N. Smith, Tarlton Lewis and William Barton discovered lead in the mountains northeast of where Minersville stands—in the fall of 1858. Specimens of the ore was taken to President Brigham in Salt Lake City, who called upon some of the brethren to open up the mines and locate a settlement near by. Consequently Minersville was first settled in the spring of 1859. The first meeting were held in June 1859—Isaac Grindy taking temporary charge ecclesiastically of the new settlement. The present site of Minersville was chosen for a town site in preference to a location know as the Lower Beaver which had been selected by some of the brethren from Cedar City, about seven miles below or northwest of the present Minersville. Brother Grundy presided in the settlement until April 7, 1860, at which time Minersville was organized into a ward. I was then called and set-apart by Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich (apostles) as Bishop. I found and located one of the first lead mines in Utah territory. We formed a company and opened up the mine, calling it is "Rollins Mine", and district, Pioneer District. The company with Isaac Grundy hauled rock and made a primitive furnace to which we hauled the ore. Brother Grundy having had experience in smelting, agreed to smelt the ore for one-half of the product. Some members of the company withdrew. The first bar of lead smeltered weighed sixty pounds. This was carried to Salt Lake City by Tarlton Lewis. The next bar I sold, enabled me to buy shoes and clothing and groceries for my family. The five pound bars I sold to Brother Pyper for the purpose of making white lead. The smaller bars I sold for twenty-five cents. According to a written statement by Daniel H. Wells, Secretary of State of Deseret, I quote: "I hereby certify (Feb. 19th, 1868) that at this time the election was held on the first Monday of August 1867, James Henry Rollins as duly elected a member of the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of the State of Deseret, from the district composed of the County of Beaver, for the term of two years ending 1869. Signed by: Daniel H. Wells, Secretary of the State of Deseret. I went to Salt Lake City and remained there for forty days when I returned home. At this time I asked to be released from being Bishop and to let James McKnight, my counselor take over. However this was not done until 1869, my term being up. Friday March 12, 1869 I was chosen High Council member for Beaver Stake---when I returned from the Legislature. I was made Postmaster of Minersville, my salary being twelve dollars a month. It increased year by year until in 1872 I received two hundred and forty dollars a year. This great increase of mail was caused by the opening up of mining districts in different parts of the country, this being the central office. Four horse coaches were run here daily from Salt Lake to Pioche. I kept the station at Minersville, where the stages met either way, from which point I distributed for Beaver and mail going South. Finally my salary was increased to two hundred and seventy-five dollars a year-1894. I was also Recorder of Mines and I was in the Mercantile Business for years. (Oct. 1, 1874 he writes a letter telling of the Fair held in Minersville success of agriculture; hard work and stock raising.) I sold my interest in the Rollins Mine for five thousand dollars. This mine was afterwards called the Lincoln Mine or District. I put three thousand dollars of this money in another mine called the Cave Mine, which was located some four miles north of Minersvile and seven miles east from Milford. Myself and two other men by the names of Julian Bosman and a Mr. Colwell leased a quartz mill at Milford, now a railroad station on the Salt Lake and Los Angeles road. We hauled the ore from the Cave Mine to Milford and made gold and silver bars of bullion, each bar being valued at fifteen hundred and two thousand dollars. But eventually I lost all I had on account of trouble, which left me penniless, and so ends my financial affairs. While we operated the lead mines, Brigham Young sent work for us to make bullets, so all the family and children were put to work helping to mold the bullets preparing for Johnston's Army. I was ordained a patriarch June 23, 1893 of Beaver Stake by Francis M. Lyman. November 4th, I was set-apart as a counselor to Daniel Tyler in the High Priest Presidency of Beaver Stake. In March I bore my testimony and sent an article to the Desert News-by request. I am now eighty years and six months old and I am still residing at Minersville, where some of my younger children are. On Sept. 18, 1896 my sister-in-law died, wife of Amasa Lyman died at Minersville, Utah. Sept. 30, 1896 Thursday, my wife Hannah died, at Minersville. I am thinking of selling my property here and going to Wyoming where some of my older children reside. As we are both getting old we have decided it would be best. It is now March 1898. I disposed of my house to George Roberts for six hundred dollars and we will soon depart for Wyoming. We left for Lyman, Wyoming the first day of July in 1898. We arrived to Salt Lake City and visited with my daughter, Mary Osborne, for several days. Had a very enjoyable time with her. We arrived in Lyman, Wyoming to my youngest daughters home, Mrs. Wallace Hamblins (Ida) July 8, 1898. My sons and daughters and families were all very happy to see us and have us with them again. The town of Lyman were preparing to celebrate the 24th of July, in honor of the pioneers. They ask me to make a speech on that occasion, which I consented to do. I related a great many incidents that I had passed through in those early days, which were very interesting to the young people. The rest of the summer and fall I spent visiting with my sons, Charles and Watson and families. This I enjoyed so very much. As winter and cold weather came on my health seemed to fail me and I am quite feeble. So I will close this writing and put my trust in the Lord, His will not mine by done. By His Daughter Ida Hamblin: In the month of January 1899 Father went to visit my brother Watson and family. Father and Mother stayed there about two weeks and during that time Father got quite sick and they brought him home to my place but he kept failing in health. He never did get bed fast. We called for Bishop Brough to come down as administer to Father. After administering to him the Bishop returned to his home to do his chores. But he said that he would return and stay all night with us. The Bishop did not get home before Father passed away, he was sitting in his chair by the fire. There was no telephones here and no way to get news only by horseback. During the evening a blizzard came up and it was dark. Bishop did not know how he was going to get down to our ranch, it was so stormy. But as he had promised us he would return and spend the night with us he decided he had better try it. So he went out and saddled his horse and started for ranch. As he did so a light appeared in front of him and lighted the way to our house. He told us about it as soon as he came in. He stayed the rest of the night and helped to wash and lay my Father out. This was on the 7th day of February 1899. Father was laid away very nicely dressed in his Temple Robes. He was buried in the Lyman Cemetery. He was a faithful Latter-Day Saint to the end of his journey here on this earth. It was said of James Henry Rollins a faithful Latter-day Saint, was the first Bishop of Minersville Ward, Post Master at Minersville, Beaver County, Utah for years. He was a Representative to Territoral Legislature before State-Hook was granted to Utah; he was recorder of mines and was a prominent man in Southern Utah and San Bernardino, California. He helped to settle San Bernardino. Was in the mercantile business in many places and helped to locate the Rollins Mine-later named the Lincoln Mines or District. James Henry Rollins was a valuable man to his Church and Country, always holding offices and taking part in both civic and church government. He always had a strong testimony of the Gospel. He was a great reader and a well educated man. A numerous posterity is left behind him to revere the name of Rollins. James Henry Rollins and his first wife were the parents of nine children-she was Eveline Walker James Henry Rollins and his second wife were the parents of thirteen children-she was Hannah Humes At this writing, August 1960, one of his daughters still lives, Hannah Birdette Rollins Hollingshead at Bountiful, Utah. She is 84 years old but her mind is keen and bright and she lives by herself, taking care of her needs, a stalwart member of the Church and her community. Aunt Birdie Hollingshead, the name by which she is called by all of her friends and relatives, is loved by all who know her. James Henry Rollins is our 3rd Great Grandfather. This letter is in the possession of Lois Etta Rollins Gillins.

Life timeline of Nancy W Alexander

1817
Nancy W Alexander was born in 1817
Nancy W Alexander was 8 years old when The Erie Canal opens: Passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie. The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. Originally, it ran 363 miles (584 km) from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie. It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and greatly affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, and the United States.
Nancy W Alexander was 14 years old when Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard HMS Beagle, during which he will begin to formulate his theory of evolution. Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
Nancy W Alexander died in 1847 at the age of 30
BillionGraves.com
Grave record for Nancy W Alexander (1817 - 1847), BillionGraves Record 51605 Springville, Utah, Utah, United States

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