Nielsen Migration Part -1- Denmark to 1866
Contributor: smithc Created: 2 years ago Updated: 2 years ago
Peder and Magdalena Nielsen-Life in Denmark to 1866:
Peder and Magdalena Nielsen were born and lived in the south-central farming part of the island of Maribo in Denmark. It seems that they basically stayed within this area in the county (Amt in Danish) of Maribo. They lived just north of Rodby a fairly large close town, but is never mentioned in their writings.
Peder Christian Nielsen was born April 21, 1823 in Saedinge, and Magdalena Rasmussen was born about 4 miles away in Tirsted on April 17, 1822. They were neighbors in a way having been born and raised in what we can call a ‘village neighborhood’. And they were only 4 days short of being but one year apart in age. We must wonder, when did they first meet, and how, and how did they court?
All of their own seven children were born in their village neighborhood. Two and maybe three of their children are buried there. Little is known of the years before their marriage, only that they both worked hard and learned several useful life preserving skills which they put to good use throughout their lives. After their marriage in 1844 up to 1866, we know more. We know what children they had, and where they were christened, which gives an idea of where they lived during these times. We know that Peder went to war in the 1848-1851 time frame, and Magdalena stayed home with the children. We know that they changed religions in 1855, bringing ridicule and difficulty to them all, but that they remained faithful to their new found beliefs. We know of their migration to America in 1866 and of their movements and lives in America until their deaths. We also know of their descendant legacy.
Peder Christian Nielsen was 21 years and eight months old, and Magdalena Rasmussen was 22 years and eight months old when they married on December 28, 1844 in Skorringe. They were probably married in the pre-1700 AD Lutheran Church, which dominates the landscape there. It is not known why the marriage took place here, but one can speculate. Their first child Niels was born on March 8, 1845 in West Tirsted some 2 to 3 miles south. Since this is where Magdalena was born, it is probable that this ‘first child’ was born in her parent’s home, or a known midwife location.
The next three children Anne, Petrasanna and Rasmus, plus Thora, their last child were born in West Skorringe making two different residencies there by Peder and Magdalena.
This is also the time of the German-Danish War over Schleswig-Holstein in which Peder had to serve from 1848 to 1851. This left Magdalena home alone with the children to get by the best that she could. They stayed in Skorringe at least until May 9, 1852 when Rasmus was christened. Sometime between 1852 and 1854, they moved to Bukkehauge or Bukkehave, but some years later in 1862 Thora was born back in Skorringe, She probably was not christened in their old church because they had changed religions. In Bukkehauge or Bukkehave they would be in very familiar territory right between where they both were born and raised-a mile each way. Peder was born in Saedinge and Magdalena in Tirsted.
Their next child Joanne Katrina was born in Bukkehauge on the March 26, 1854. She lived only about seventeen months, and died on August 12, 1855. Her cause of death is not known. She is buried in Nebbelunde. About this time in 1855, representatives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints came through, and the Nielsens embraced the teachings and joined the LDS Church. We might note here that this is the year that they lost their baby Joanne, and maybe the LDS teachings touched them.
This changing of religions would mean that they would no longer attend the state church. Johannes or John, their next child was born very close by in Bukkehave on 9 June 1858; so they were there in that area at least four years. Their next and last child Thora was born on July 1, 1862, but she was born back up in Skorringe, so the Nielsens must have moved back up there sometime between June 9, 1858 and July 1, 1862.
Peder Christian’s Ancestry: Near the topmost part of Jutland is the county (Amt) and City of Hjorring. The towns of Bjergby and Mygdal are located just north of Hjorring. This is the area where Peder Christian Nielsen’s father Niels Nielsen was born, and his father’s ancestors were from. But Peder’s mother Ane Hansen and her ancestors on both sides, are from the island of Lolland. This is some 300 or so miles from each other and across the water. Niels Nielsen, Peter Christian’s father, died in Gadstrup which is up toward Kobenhavn, but south and east of there. Gadstrup is not even on the main roads. He was 43 years old. How did he die? What was he doing there? These are more interesting questions that may never yield an answer for us. We don’t know how or why Niels Nielsen came to Lolland, but he did before he married Anne Hansen in 1813. They were married in Nebbelunde, and then settled in the area, because, their four children were born locally.
Ane Johanne, a girl, was christened Mar 18, 1815 in Vejleby. Niels, a boy, was christened Mar 3, 1817 in Saedinge; Else a girl was christened 7 Nov 1819 in Saedinge. Peder Christian was christened Apr 21, 1823 in Saedinge. All three were more than likely christened in the Saedinge Church.
Peder and Magdalena were the migrants. They broke the chain of life in the “old country.” We don’t really know the occupations of these people, but for the most part they were probably like Peder Christian. Namely owning no land, renting their farms and homes, and working at whatever skills they each possessed such as carpentry, shoe making, basket making, tailoring, baking etc. Some would exceed others in prosperity. Let’s say they were just simple, good folks.
Here is a summary of the birth and death places and information that is known about Peder and Magdalena’s ancestral families as well as their own family:
Peder Christian Nielsen was born April 21, 1823 in Saedinge Lolland Denmark. He died on Aug 4, 1879 in Holladay, Utah. He is buried in Holladay Memorial Park cemetery in Cottonwood, Salt Lake County, Utah. He died at the age of 56, and died of the tuberculosis he contracted in the German-Danish war. No known picture of him exists.
His daughter Thora kept a record book with a page devoted to each member of her family and some ancestors. She indicates in there that he started school at age 7 and graduated at age 14, and Magdalena, Niels, Rasmus and Petrasanna did also. She also states that Peder was about 5 foot eight inches tall and weighed 150 pounds with a chest size of 38 inches.. His eyes were hazel grey and his hair was jet black. She also said his health was very good up until he came back from the war with Germany in 1851. She records that he was baptized into the LDS church in 1855 and ordained an Elder in Denmark and a high priest in the West Mill Creek Ward in Big Cottonwood about 1871-1876, endowed in the Endowment House in Salt Lake in 1872 and received a patriarchal blessing from William G Smith and that he did die of tuberculosis. She also states that he was the only man that arrived from crossing the plains with the same number in his family as when they started.
According to a history and biography written by May Nielsen Anderson in 1948, a daughter of his son John, “He had a medium build, jet black hair and hazel blue eyes. He had an alternating disposition, sometimes morose and sometimes jovial. He was given the nickname of his birthplace “Sadinge.” He told others that his oldest son Niels looked just like him.
It must be said that he was a good man. His activities in life speak well of his character and integrity. He was energetic and resourceful, always working to provide for his family. He built several houses for his family. We know of two different ones in Cottonwood, and one in Bear River City. He went right to work upon arrival in Salt Lake with some old friends of his from Denmark. He farmed very successfully in Bear River City and Cottonwood. He made furniture for his wife and children. A rocking chair and other things he made for Magdalena in the 1860s and 70s, were kept and used by her until her death in 1903. Unfortunately he apparently did not write his life story, none has come to light.
His grand-daughters had some good hand me down family information that gives us some insights. There may be more information about him not yet known within the families of his children. In a “History of Peder Christian Nielsen” by Sylvia Starkie Fowles Tarot a daughter of Thora, we learn that as a young man, he learned to be very versatile. He learned to be a flax-man. This is someone who can take the raw flax and prepare it for spinning into linen. This skill helped him in Utah in 1867. He also worked with the butchers and did some carpentry work. He made the furniture for his family when they were in Utah. He also made clogs or wooden shoes in Denmark. He could and did farm successfully, so he had developed this knowledge and skill as well. Perhaps the one skill that he used to keep his family from starving was basket making. He did this extensively in Denmark and also in Utah. His children would go around and sell these baskets. The crowning note of this skill is that in 1867, he traded two of his baskets for ten acres of virgin land in Big Cottonwood south of Salt Lake City. This area is now prime residential and business property.
Peder’s father, Niels Nielsen, was born April 18, 1784. He, his parents and ancestors were born up in Hjorring, Jutland. Most of them are probably buried there, although Niels who died in Gadstrup near Copenhagen on October 24, 1832 is assumed to be buried there, but this is not confirmed.
Peder’s mother Anne Hansen and her ancestors were born in this same neighborhood on Lolland, and are assumed to be buried there except for Anne who died in Feb of 1886, and is listed as being buried in Weston, Franklin County, Idaho, but this too is not confirmed. After the death of her husband (Peders father), she remarried on August 3, 1833 to Rasmus Jorgen Hansen, and it is assumed that they migrated to America later, but this information and when and where to is not confirmed.
Magdalena Rasmussen was born Apr 17, 1822 in Tirsted, Lolland, Denmark. She was christened on April 20, 1822 probably in the Tirsted Church which dates from the 1200s. This Tirsted Church has become world famous in the restoration world. It was built in the Romanesque period around the beginning of the 13th century. It consists of a Chancel, a nave with two bays and a tower. It had a flat ceiling at that time, but is now pointed. The first interior decorations were a few consecration crosses imprinted on the red brick interior walls, but soon a rendering was done to the interior sometime during the 13th century. Around 1400-1425, some walls in the chancel and nave were decorated with Gothic wall paintings. In the second half of the 15th century, quadripartite vaults were erected. These vaults were lime-washed and decorated with late Gothic wall paintings around 1500. When the reformation occurred, this all was lime-washed, and the paintings were covered up probably by the pietist movement in the 17th century. In 1889-1892, the Church went through a major renovation and restoration. During this time, all the artwork and paintings were discovered and uncovered. The earlier 1400-1425 artwork was kept and restored, the late gothic work of the 1500s on the vaults was dismantled in order to keep and emphasize the earlier and more favored artwork. For the past 115 years, many experts have been utilized to save these treasured wall paintings. They are however disintegrating fast. There are moisture, heating and cooling problems, but worse than these, there is salt encroachment up through the mortar of the bricks. A lot of the artwork has flaked off and lost. Some very serious an in depth analysis and restoration work has been and is being done to preserve the rest. The latest work was accomplished in 1999-2000.
The Rasmussen’s, (Magdalena’s people) have lived in Tirsted since at least 1700. Magdalena was christened here, and undoubtedly spent her pre marital years in Sunday and other services in the old Tirsted church as well as possibly on occasion after her marriage. She may never have really seen those early paintings because they were not uncovered until after she left Denmark. Little did she know that her old church would become so famous. She lived to be 81 years old, and died 12 Feb 1903 in the home of her daughter Thora Nielsen Starkie in Naples, Vernal, Utah. She is buried in the Vernal Cemetery. She was fairly tall, with blonde hair and blue eyes. There is only one known picture or view of her taken later in her life. Her hair was no longer blonde, but coffee-brown. She preferred to speak Danish, and almost always did so. In her young years before marriage, she too learned valuable skills. She worked on a dairy farm and learned the art of making good butter and cheese. She also learned to make malt beer. She became a fairly good practical nurse and midwife too. This skill was put to good use in her journey to America where she helped the sick, especially crossing the plains where she did enormous work with the sick and dying. Magdalena went among the cholera infested sick in her company and did all she could to help. She too became ill with the cholera, but fortunately she recovered. No one else in her family became ill with it.
She gave birth to seven children, of whom the first five died before she did. She withstood the loss and agony of losing these children at various ages and development:
In 1855, Joanne Katrina died in Denmark. She was 17 months old. Cause unknown.
In 1857, Anne died in Denmark at the age of 10 years. Cause unknown.
In 1869, Petrasanna died in her parents home in the Bear River City Fort, Utah at the age of 18 years. She died of black canker, which is said to be diphtheria-probably not a pleasant thing to witness.
In 1871, Niels died in Denmark at the age of 25 of yellow jaundice.
In 1894, Rasmus died in Vernal, Utah at the age of 42 in the diphtheria epidemic.
In addition to losing five children, she also lost her husband at an early age: In 1879, she saw her husband Peder wither away with tuberculosis and die while in Big Cottonwood, Utah at the young age of 56. She never remarried.
She also witnessed first-hand the deaths of over 100 of her traveling companions during this epic journey. She saw a lot of suffering. It is not known how much suffering she witnessed in her own family, but it is known that those 100 who had cholera would at times be in agony, and sometimes writhe in pain. Not pleasant to be around.
May Nielsen indicates that she had dropsy near the end of her life; so she was ill herself during that time. She probably suffered some on her own during these days. Her grand-daugher Sylvia Starkie Fowles Tarot, Thora’s daughter was in the house as a child during this time. Even though she was only three years old, she vividly remembers her grandmother Magdalena. She related on several occasions her recollections of grandma Magdalena being in bed, and she (Sylvia) would stand and look at her as a small child would do. After awhile, Magdalena would become irritated and try to shoo her away, speaking in Danish and waving her arms. Sylvia wrote a poem about her as follows:
MY GRANDMOTHER NIELSEN
Grandmother Nielsen, I still see you there-
With the little white cap over your coffee brown hair.
Frail and sick, you lay in your bed-
With several large pillows under your head.
Day after day I stood by your bed-
Wondering what it was you had said.
Your English was poor, and no Danish I knew-
So how in the world could I understand you.
I remember you as you milked your old jersey cow-
Long before I ever learned how.
And cold, and still, on the table you lay packed in ice too-
As I knelt in the rocker, and looked over the back at you.
My mother said: “How can you remember-
She died in February, and you were four the next December.”
Perhaps Dear Grandmother, I remember you-
Cause you’re the only grandparent I ever knew.
Sylvia Katherine Starkie Fowles Tarot About 1975
The packed in ice line refers to Magdalena’s death on the 14th of February 1903. She had to be kept in the house after she died, because the ground was so frozen, her grave couldn’t be dug. She was laid on the table and packed In ice for a few days. She died in the evening of a very cold winter day, and her son John and daughter Thora were at her bedside.
Sylvia’s mention of the cow refers to Magdalena’s old jersey cow named ‘Silky’. This was a mean animal, and only Magdalena or Tora could deal with her. Tora told of how the cow would chase the kids. One time this cow chased and pinned her brother John up against the fence with the horns on both sides of him. His screaming finally brought Magdalena to the rescue.
Sylvia wrote a history of Magdalena that includes these and other stories of her grandmother. Magdalena milked her cow daily with a ritual that is classic. She would descend on the corral with her milk pail in one hand and her three legged stool in the other, and shoo and drive old silky into the corner. Her head would be to the north and her tail to the west. Grandma would slip a rope around her horns and then tie it to the fence, then tie a rope around her legs and tail, then to the fence, then set down and milk her.
Magdalena’s father’s family are mainly from Tirsted, Maribo amt, Lolland. Magdalena’s mother’s family are from Vesterborg and Taagerup area.
Peders fathers family are from Hjorring, Jutland area , and his mother’s family are
from Tirsted and Vjleby area on Lolland.
Peder (Peter) and Magdalena were married on Dec. 28, 1844 in Skjorringe. Their children were:
1-Niels, born 9 mar 1845 in West Tirsted. Did not migrate to America. Marital status unknown. Died of yellow jaundice in April of 1871 in Denmark at age 25, probably on Lolland. No known photo or picture of him or of the grave stone. No known posterity.
2-Anna, born 19 Mar 1847 in Skjorringe. Died of unknown causes at age 10 in Nebbelunde. No known photo or picture or her or the gravestone.
3-Petra Susanna Christiane (Sanna), Nielsen. Born September 1, 1850 in West Skjorringe. Immigrated to Utah in 1866. Married William Casto in Salt Lake City, went with him on a mission to the big muddy in Nevada. She returned and Died of black canker or diphtheria in April 1869 in the Nielsen home within the old fort at Bear RiverCity,Utah. She was 18 1/2 yrs old. She is in the Bear River City Cemetery. She had no known posterity.
4-Rasmus Nielsen. Born 19 Mar 1852 in west Skjorringe, Lolland. Immigrated in Aug 1869. Married Karen Marie Larsen, and had two children. John Franklin and Elnora. Died May 28, 1894 at the age of 42 in Vernal, Utah during the diphtheria epidemic of 1894. Buried in Vernal cemetery. Has a good posterity.
5-Johanne Catrine, born 26 Mar. 1854 in Nebbelunde, Lolland. Died there at age 1.
No Photo or picture of her or of the grave.
6-Johannas (John) Nielsen. Born 9 June 1858 in Nebbelunde, Lolland, Denmark. Married Frances Higgins. Had 14 children. Died 8 July, 1948 at age 90 in Vernal, Utah of old age. John homesteaded in Vernal, Has a large posterity. He wrote a good life story that provides many details of life in old Denmark.
7-Thora (Tora) Nielsen. Born 1 July 1862 in West Skjorringe, Lolland, Denmark. Married Ludvig Jacobsen who died after 3 years. Had 2 children. Married Edward John Starkie. Had 8 children.
Died 3 July 1961 in Vernal, Utah at age 99, of old age. Tora spent the last 30 years of her life in bed in a well choreographed rotation in the homes of five of her daughters. She had severe dizziness, but she remained alert and active in writing, and corresponding. Tora wrote her own life story which is in the Daughters of Utah Pioneers Library in Salt Lake City, Utah. Has a large posterity.
Nielsen Migration Part -2- Leaving Denmark 1866
Contributor: smithc Created: 2 years ago Updated: 2 years ago
Peder and Magdalena Nielsen Conversion and leaving Denmark 1866
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was organized in upstate New York, USA in 1830. Its message was dynamic and for everyone. The leaders were divinely instructed to preach to all the World the message of the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ. Missionaries were soon sent out and about the land and then the world. England then Scandinavia were some of the first areas.It was in 1837, that the first missionaries were in Great Britain and having great success. The church grew in all areas of the country. The converts were wanting to go to America to be with the Saints. This urging coupled with the dead-end type of life many had been living in the old country, prompted a large part of the new converts to migrate to America. They mostly left from Liverpool, England, which was and is a significant port. The first group of emigrating Saints sailed from there on June 6,1840, on the ship Britannia, bound for New York.
The European mission was established first in Manchester, then in 1842, they moved to Liverpool where it was headquarters for the missionary effort until 1929. From its 1840 beginning, til 1869, (when the railroad reached Utah, ending the pioneer trek across the plains) 89,500 Saints sailed from Liverpool in some 150 various vessels. By the year 1852, the Scandinavian Mission was in operation, and the missionaries were having success there. In that year, many of those Saints made the first migration from Scandinavia through Liverpool. In the years that followed, a regular system was established where emigrants would travel by ship from their Scandinavian or upper mainland European country to Hull, England, which is on the Eastern side of England near Scandinavia. From Hull, they would travel by train mostly to Liverpool, but sometimes to Southampton. Here they would board the ships for the trip across the Atlantic.
It is mentioned in the personal history written by Johannas (John) Nielsen, Peder and Magdalena’s eight-year-old son at the time of the migration, that this is the route they took. This is not correct. It may be that when John wrote his history some 50 or so years later, that he got this information from others who had done that route, for there had been many. He was definitely on the ship “Cavour” that sailed directly from Hamburg Germany to New York. That was the system used in 1866 for Scandinavia. It is true that the “Cavour” went past Hull down the English Channel on their way, but there is no record of them stopping in Hull. Other histories of our Nielsen members contain the same information about going from Hull to Liverpool to America. It seems people copied from each other, and promulgated that error.
John Nielsen also mentioned that he thought the name of his ship was the “Sampa,” but there is no record of any ship by that name being used in any LDS migration. His sister Tora in her history mentions that her folks told her that they sailed on a ship called the “Cavour.” This information is correct. Also John’s name is on the passenger list with his family for the “Cavour.” He did sail with his family from Hamburg to America on the “Cavour.” and not a “Sampa.” He sailed from Copenhagen to Kiel on the steamship “Aurora.” This too is documented. It is possible, and maybe probable that they sailed on a vessel by the name of “Sampa” from Lolland to Copenhagen. John’s history tells that they went by boat or inter-island ferry to Copenhagen. No records of that voyage have been found. They were also on many river steamers after they arrived in America. One of them may have been the “Sampa.”
The route and system used for Scandinavian migration through Hull to Liverpool was used steadily up into 1864, and after for some. In 1865, however, there was a company of 557 gathered in Copenhagen that would start a different system of migration for the Saints. The mission authorities had chartered an American ship called the B.L. Kimball for the journey, and it was to go directly from Hamburg to New York. This would take England out of the loop or route. It was successful.
Brigham Young Jr, and John W. Young personally went to Hamburg in the month of May 1866, and with mission president Carl Widerborg made the necessary arrangements for the migration of their 1213 Scandinavian Saints in 1866. They chartered three vessels for this purpose. All three made successful voyages. The Kennilworth sailed May 25 with 684 emigrants. The Cavour left June 1 with 201 on board and the Humboldt on June 2 with the remaining 328. All would leave from Hamburg and go directly to New York. This they did successfully. The Cavour was to be the smallest and slowest vessel used, and the least adequately provisioned. Our Nielsens would be on board this vessel
The Missionaries and Peder & Magdalena’s family life in Denmark.
Peder Christian Nielsen was born 21 April, 1823 in Saedinge, and Magdalena was born just a very few miles away in Tirsted on 17 April 1822. They were neighbors in a way, and only one year apart in age. We do not know anything about their youth, so we can each speculate about that as we learn of these two people destined to become important to us. They were married on 28 Dec 1844 in nearby Skjorringe when they were about 22 years old. Their seven children were born also nearby in: West Tirsted, Skjorringe, West Skjorringe and Nebbelunde. This may indicate some movement in work and living places, or just places where there was a midwife and/or a good place to have a child, we don’t really know. All of these places are just a few miles from each other. There is a church at each of these places, and that is about all. A cemetery, a few houses and farm buildings where everything is stored. The Danish farmers keep everything inside, both equipment and animals. On a decent day, one can see at least one other church.
Peder was fortunate enough to have learned several trades which served him and his family well, both in Denmark and in Utah. He learned to weave all sorts of baskets, which was a life saver for them later in Utah where baskets were needed. He also made wooden shoes called clogs, and did carpentry work. He also became a flaxman, one who could weave the raw flax into linen. His wife Magdalena worked on a dairy farm, and learned the art and skill of making good butter and cheese. She also became expert at making malt beer. The Danish did not drink water, they drank beer and coffee. As far as we know, this skill was not used by her in America. She also became a good practical nurse and midwife. We see that this couple was armed with some good old-fashioned skills that would serve them well throughout their lives.
From 1844, the date of their marriage, we know that they lived in Maribo, Amt, worked hard and had children. They had Seven children starting in 1845 with Niels, up until 1862 with the birth of Thora, the last one. They lost their second child, Anna, at the age of ten, as well as their fifth child who died at the age of one. The reasons for these deaths are not known.
It is interesting, however, to note that they were converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) in 1855. The same year that the number five child died. Perhaps in their grief they were ready to know of the truths of the Eternal Gospel as taught by the missionaries. These Elders, of course, had all the correct answers to the mystery of death and the purpose of life, and especially the teachings of eternal families being bound together for eternity in the temple of the lord by genuine authority from God. The Nielsens couldn’t get these answers from the State Church.
The Scandinavian Mission President from 4 Sep 1853 to 29 Jan 1856 was John Van Cott, age 38 from Salt Lake City. He was born in Canaan New York, and was baptized into the Church in Sept 1845 by Parley P. Pratt He migrated to Utah with one of the first companies in 1847. He also served a 2nd mission to Scandinavia in 1860-62. He died as one of the seven president of Seventy in Salt Lake City on 18 Feb 1883. We don’t know if the Nielsens knew him at all or ever met him, or if he was one of the missionaries that converted them. But at least as mission president, he would know of the Nielsen’s joining the Church.
There is no mention by the Nielsen’s as to who the missionaries were that converted them. There were only a few missionaries in Denmark in 1855, so two or more of the following would be the ones the Nielsens were associated with. In this time period, it was the program of the Church at that time to call local (in the same country) missionaries to serve. Elders from Utah were much fewer. The first one’s listed are the most likely:
Johan Swenson, from Sweden. (notice the ‘o’ in the end of his name. Swedes used an ‘o’ Dane’s had an ‘e’). He joined the Church on 15 Sep. 1850, and served this first mission from 1851 to 1856. He served in Sweden and Denmark. He was President of the Lolland Conference, so is a prime candidate for being one of the missionaries that converted the Nielsens. This is not confirmed though. He migrated to Utah in 1856. He returned to Sweden for a second mission from 1862 to 1865. He died in Salt Lake City, Utah on the 24th of June 1881.
Chr. O. Folkmann, born on the island of Bornholm, Denmark. Baptized by Jens Jorgensen on 29 Nov. 1851. Served first mission on islands of Bornholm, Lolland Falster and Mon from 1852 to 1858. He was also president of Fredericia Conference. He migrated to Utah in 1858. He returned for a second mission to Norway and Sweden from 1865 to 1868. He died 14 Nov. 1915 at Far West in Weber county, Utah.
Anders Christensen, born in Vra, Hjorring, Denmark. Baptized 27 July 1852 by Adolph J. Bohn, and served as a missionary in Denmark (locations unknown) from 1853 to 1856. He emigrated to Utah in 1856. He served a second mission to Denmark from 1860 to 1863. He died in Brigham City, Utah in 1882
Hans Peter Lund, was born in Nekso, Bornholm, Denmark. Joined the Church on 17 Sep.1853. Served from 1854 to 1858, as a missionary in Denmark and President of the Norwegian Mission. He emigrated to Utah in 1858, and died in Huntsville in 1880. His presence in Lolland is doubtful.
Hector Caleb Haight, age 45 was born in Windham, New York. He joined the Church in 1845 and migrated to Salt Lake in 1847. He lived in Farmington, Utah, from which he came to serve in the Danish mission from 9 Sept 1855 to 4 Feb 1858. He succeeded President Van Cott as Mission President on or about 29 Jan 1856. He died in Farmington, Utah on 26 June 1879. His arrival in the mission on 9 Sept 1855 is late, and the Nielsens may not have known him.
The fact that the Nielsens listened to the teachings of the missionaries, and then connected with them and joined with these truths, points out the depth of their thinking, and the seriousness in which they regarded their responsibilities as parents. They were truly converted and then stayed faithful all their lives. They were not shallow nor hypocritical or closed minded as some of their Danish neighbors showed themselves to be.
From the time that they joined the Church in 1855, they had hard times, as indicated in the family narratives about them . Many of their so-called friends, neighbors, associates, and anyone who knew of their leaving the state church treated them with the typical narrow-minded bigotry that is evident in those that are shallow thinkers and ignorant of the truth.
Their life stories tell of the eleven years of difficult living . Not finding gainful employment because of this bigotry. Bad treatment of the children in school and in the neighborhood and on and on. Johannas (John) Nielsen gives a comprehensive telling of these
years in his life story that he added to up to a few months before his death in 1948 . These difficult times probably served as a refiners fire and toughened them for the difficult journey and frontier life that lay ahead of them. These times precipitated their eventual migration.
Finally in the spring of 1866, the missionaries came with glad tidings. There was money available to pay for most of their fares to America. The missionaries in Denmark in 1866 that were probably the bearers of the news were:
Peter Hansen age 40 from Hyrum, Utah. He was born in Skavends, Sjaelland, Denmark. He was Baptized on 7 Jul 1857 by Niels Nielsen.(no known relation) He emigrated to Utah in 1861, but returned to serve this mission from 2 August 1865 to Jun of 1868. He was one of the traveling Elders for Lolland, Fyn, Falster, Moen and other islands. He later lived in Bear Lake, Idaho and died in Wyoming in 1906.
Anders Larsen age 33, was born in Wallerod, Fredericksburg Denmark. He joined the Church on 13 Jan. 1859, and emigrated to Utah in 1862. He settled in Ephraim, Utah from which he came to Denmark for his mission from 2 August 1865 to 1867 or 1868. He was assigned as one of the traveling Elders for Lolland, Fyn, Falster and Moen. He died in Deweyville, Box Elder, Utah.
These two Elders named above are most likely the missionaries that were in touch with the Nielsens in 1866. This is not definitive, but is very likely because they appear to have been the ones assigned to the Island of Lolland in 1866. There were a few other missionaries in the mission on other assignments, but could have also been involved with the Nielsens, they were:
Carl Widenborg, age 50, the Mission President was born in Goteborg, Sweden where he joined the Church on 4 March 1853. He soon served as a missionary in Norway, until he was called into the Mission office in Copenhagen to act as a translator. He did this until 1858 when he was called to be the Mission President to succeed Hector C. Haight. He served until 1860, then emigrated to Utah and settled in Ogden. He was called back to be Mission President again from 31 July, 1864 to September, 1868. He died in Ogden, Utah on the 12 March 1869. His office would be in Copenhagen, but did indeed travel the mission as they do. He may have had contact with the Nielsens, at least as they passed through Copenhagen, and perhaps again in Hamburg.
Niels Wilhelmsen, age 41, was born in Feuling, Denmark, and had emigrated to Utah. He was called from St Charles, Idaho, and served from 2 August 1865 to 13 June 1867. He was a counselor to President Widerborg, and was a traveling Elder. He was the leader of the 26th company of Saints to emigrate to Utah in 1867. He had also served a previous mission to Denmark, and another to Denmark on which he died in 1881. He may or may not have known the Nielsens, but surely had met them as they passed through in their migration experience.
Niels Nielsen, age 49, was born on 12 March 1816 in Haugerup, Sjaelland, Denmark. He was baptized on 11 June 1855, and emigrated to Utah in 1857. He settled in Brigham City, Utah. He paid for a number of fares for other poor Saints that did not have the funds to migrate. This gives an idea of the faith and devotion of this good man. He was called from Brigham City to serve a mission in Denmark from 2 August 1865 to 1 June 1866. His assignment in Denmark was as a traveling Elder in Sjaelland and Bornholm, and later as the president of the Bornholm Conference.
There is no indication that he knew the Nielsens during his mission, but he was released early and appointed leader of their company to take them to Utah. They would become well acquainted during this journey. During the journey, the parents of two young boys died leaving them orphans. Niels took these boys, Pierre Larsen and Lars P. Nielsen in his charge. He took them to Brigham City and raised them as his own. He may also have later lived in Bear River City about the same time that Peder and Magdalena and family lived there. Niels Nielsen died on 10 March 1893 in Cleveland, Idaho.
The Missionaries brought news that the Nielsens were to be financially helped to emigrate. This news was received with great joy. A kind member named Jens Gregersen had some means to do so. He was a 32 year old farmer from Reersnes. He and his wife Sidsel age 30, with their 9 ½ year old daughter Ane also migrated this year. They were not, however, on the Cavour nor the Abner Lowry wagon train. We are not sure if the Nielsens ever met them or were able to thank them in person. At this time, it is with appreciation, that the descendants of the Nielsens recognize and publicly express gratitude to the Gregersens for their generosity, kindness and unselfishness at that time. Their kindness changed the course of history for many people.
The fare in 1866 was about 82 Danish Rigsdallars which was about $42.00 American dollars for each person. This amount seems to have been the fare to New York. The Church’s perpetual immigration fund probably took care of the costs from New York to Salt Lake. This would be paid back in the future by the immigrants as they became able to pay. The Nielsen’s did in time pay it back.
The problem, though was that there was only enough money to pay for six of them. It was decided to leave 21 year old Niels behind, and money would be sent later for him to emigrate. A few days later the Elders returned with the bad news that the shipping cost had been raised, and only five could go. Rasmus, the 14 year old, would have to join Niels in staying behind until money could be raised in order to pay his way later. This was done in 1869. Rasmus traveled to Utah on one of the first transcontinental railroad trains in August of 1869. He joined his family in Bear River City. Niels did not come.
The Nielsens soon packed what they could for the journey to America. The missionaries probably gave them a mission-prepared list of suggested items to take. They did indeed pack their belongings and departed their family homeland on about May 22, 1866. They apparently were able to take a boat to Copenhagen where they were to be assembled into a company of several hundred other emigrants for the journey to America. They were to depart from Copenhagen at 1:00 P.M. on May 28. This they did on the steamship ‘Aurora.’ They could not have known what lie in store for them. They were happy to be on their way, and all is well.
Nielsen Migration Part -3- Lolland to Hamburg 1866
Contributor: smithc Created: 2 years ago Updated: 2 years ago
Peder/Magdalena & Family 1866 Migration
Leg 1-May 22-23,1866 From Maribo, Lolland to Copenhagen Denmark
From Maribo, Lolland to Copenhagen is a distance of about 120 Kilometers or 80 US miles by land, and if by sea a bit longer. In this narrative Maribo is used as a starting point for the journey, because the Nielsen’s exact residence at the time of departure from Lolland is not mentioned. Maribo is only a few miles from the towns where they lived making it a descriptive starting point.
The exact date of leaving their island home of Lolland is also not known. Some calculations based upon a few known facts will give a good approximation. John Nielsen’s history mentions that they took a boat from Lolland to Copenhagen. This would occupy the good part of a day for an 80 plus mile boat trip. He also mentions that they stayed in Copenhagen for a “few-days”. We also know that they left Copenhagen on Monday, May 28. Counting back from that Monday a few days might go like this: Sunday the 27th is the Sabbath, a day of worship and rest for the Saints. Saturday the 26th was probably the last official day for the emigrants to check in or register for the journey with the mission leaders. So allowing a “few-days” for John to “play with his friends,” it seems likely that the Nielsens may have left Lolland about Tuesday the 22 rd. of May 1866.
There is virtually nothing said in any of the histories from the Nielsen family about the details of this part of their journey. The only mention made was by Johannas (John), in his history. Remember, he was eight years old at the time of his journey, and although he was probably highly impressed with what was happening to him, he was still a boy. John also wrote his history sometime in the later years of his long life of 90 years. He said that they went from Lolland to Copenhagen by “boat”. This is probably correct, but we are without definitive knowledge.
John also mentions in his history that they came to America in a ship called the “Sampa”. It is now known that they indeed came on the vessel “Cavour”. This leads to speculation that perhaps the “Sampa”may have been the name of this inter-island ferry, and perhaps John’s ‘first big ship’. In all the migration records reviewed, there was no mention of a vessel by the name of “Sampa” anywhere. That name could also have been one of the river steamers they used in America later on. No records have verified that either.
It is quite likely that there were inter-island ferries operating in Denmark at that time. Steam ferries and steam powered ships of all shapes and sizes had been around for several years by then. These steam powered vessels were much preferred over wind and sail vessels for maneuvering in coastal waters. The steam vessels provided much better control and efficiency for these purposes. Since Denmark is made up of so many islands, it is reasonable to at least assume that a ferry or inter-island steamer would have been available to them for transport to Copenhagen.
Overland travel could also have been done by them. There were two bodies of water they would have needed to cross to get to the island of Zealand where Copenhagen is found. These waterways are only a few hundred yards across however, and ferries were undoubtedly operating. They would have needed to use wagons, and not just horses to make such a journey because of their luggage. Present day maps show a main road going from Maribo up through Lolland, across Falster island and then onto Zealand and right up to Copenhagen. That route was undoubtedly there in 1866. This overland route is possible, but not verified; so the water route as mentioned by John is assumed in this narrative. They did, as noted, make it to Copenhagen with time to spare.
Sat. May 26,-Assembly and company assignments in Copenhagen. John mentions in his history that they stayed in Copenhagen for “a few-days.” During this stay, he indicated that for the first time in his life, he was able to play with other “Mormon children,” which was a real pleasure for him. The Scandinavian mission had apparently rented a hall or warehouse somewhere in the waterfront area. This hall was used by the hundreds of emigrants to stay in, for the few days necessary for the mission leaders to gather the migrating Saints into a coherent “Company” in preparation for the ocean voyage. Keeping all the people together would be imperative for such an operation. This was probably done on Saturday, and not the Sabbath.
Copenhagen, in 1866 had a population of about 180,000. This makes it a substantial city with all the amenities of the time. As Denmark’s capital, it was also a major harbor and port. It had been for several hundred or so years of its national existence. Finding and providing a hall or warehouse would be very feasible, and probably served the mission very well as a gathering place for these migrating saints.
On May 17, just about ten days back, a company of 684 migrating Saints had been assembled in this hall. They had been formed into a company that sailed May 17 from Copenhagen on the steamer “Aurora”, bound for Kiel and then Hamburg Germany. In Hamburg, they boarded the ship “Kennilworth” and sailed to America on May 25. The Kennilworth was the first of the three emigrant vessels destined to sail from Hamburg in the year 1866.
This gathering that the Nielsen's were part of was to be 529 in number. They would form one large company that would sail from Copenhagen also on the steamer “Aurora.” They would also go to Kiel, Germany, and then on to Hamburg. In Hamburg, this large company would split into two smaller companies. One company would be 328, and they would board the “Humboldt”. The remainder would form a company of 201 and would board the sailing barque “Cavour”. The Nielsen's were to be part of this company of 201. This was the beginning of probably the greatest adventure of their lives, going from Copenhagen Denmark to Salt Lake City, Utah USA. This was to be an incredible journey that would take them almost five months to complete. They will soon be in Germany, a foreign land where they will take on a new and lifelong role of being “strangers in a foreign land”, and a language barrier will emerge as now forever part of their listening and speaking. In Germany, most of them will have the thrill of their first train ride. They then will board another vessel for the big ocean voyage. They will spend about two months on the unforgiving yet magnificent Atlantic Ocean. Here, they will undergo a range of experiences from absolute beauty and relaxation to sheer blatant terror.
They will ride on six different railroads, zooming across the countryside at the unheard of and incredible speed of 30, even 40 miles an hour at times. Most of them will have their first train ride on a relaxing German compartment train then they will later experience the practical comfort of American second class cars and then endure the filth and harshness of cattle and freight cars across Canada. Other trains await them, including their final train ride across the Missouri countryside, within miles of the sacredness of Adam-Ondi-Ahman, and the sobering Haun’s Mill. That place where many Saints were recently murdered in the Haun’s mill massacre, then the rest persecuted and expelled by the Governor. The LDS identity of this company the Nielsens are in will be made known and telegraphed to the local residents through Missouri who are still plagued with the hate of the previous generations. Along the way, they will not be wanted, and will undergo abuse on and along that last train ride of the journey.
They will experience the true charity of people of quality on down to the rashness and abuses of others filled with the devil. They will traverse rivers, oceans and continents on various transportation modes. They will walk over a thousand miles across the American landscape for about two months wondering how they can take another step. They will take upon themselves another culture, lifestyle and language. All of them will view the finality of death of friends, loved ones or companions. All of this, they probably know something about, but do not yet know of the harshness that a blending of unfortunate circumstances will mete out to them.
All of them will experience some degree of suffering and hardship, unmeasurable by our standards and understanding. This too, they do not yet know. They will do all this of their own free will and accord. They want freedom of worship, and to be among other good people. This will occur in time, meanwhile this journey has to be accomplished. None of them would ever forget what they are about to endure. This first day on the “Aurora” is a nice way to start such a journey. Things are going well, the weather is good, and the future shows promise for a better life. This is a day of euphoria and thanks-giving because they are finally on their way to America.
Out of this large company of 529, there are 201 unknowing Saints who were to endure so much more than the others they were now with. This 201 will separate off of this large group in Hamburg, and become the “Cavour Company”. This company is destined to make the journey on the small barque “Cavour.” One of the smallest and slowest vessels to cross the Atlantic bringing emigrants to America.
A combination of unfortunate circumstances are coming together. Any one of which is in and of itself not serious, but when combined, will blend together to create a serious scenario. This is what is about to happen to those of the ‘Cavour Company.’ They of course knew not of what was coming together. Two of these circumstances are the Cavour’s small size and the fact that it is rigged as a barque and not a ship will play a part in the destiny of this company of 201 as we shall see. The other vessels are Ship rigged. Their timing is OK. They are leaving their homeland early enough under normal circumstances to arrive in Utah before winter. So, in essence, at this time, all is well.
Leg 2-Mon.-May 28-Copenhagen Denmark to Kiel Germany
It was a Monday morning May 28, 1866 when this large company of 529 started boarding the steamship ‘Aurora’ in the Copenhagen dock area. This steamship of 151 tons, was 137 feet long, with a width or beam of 18 feet and a draft of 9 feet. This vessel had an iron hull, and was steam powered with one funnel, but with three masts of sail, thus making it one of the transition ships of that era in which steam was the motive power, but assisted and backed up by sail. She was built in 1859 in Renfrew, Scotland. Aurora served as a passenger and light freight steamer on the Baltic ocean between Oslo Norway, Copenhagen, Denmark and Kiel, Germany. She apparently served for many years on this and probably other runs. After being rebuilt in 1875, the Aurora served another 26 years until 1901 when it was broken up. She was a good ship, and would safely and efficiently transport the Nielsens and their emigrant brothers and sisters to Kiel.
The migrants on the Aurora were getting all settled into what places of comfort they could attain for the overnight journey to Kiel, and with great anticipation and excitement, they waited for all to get on board, and for the crew to make ready for the journey. At 1:00 P.M..,on that Monday, May 28,1866, they cast off and sailed from Copenhagen. Their journey to America had begun, and their life in Denmark is about to be a matter of memory and history
The weather was fine that day, a breeze was blowing the sun was shining, and the Baltic sea was reasonably calm on that day. The spirits of all were high. Everyone was happy to be on their way. They were on the Baltic Sea, and at a fairly northern latitude. This sea though small in comparison to the Atlantic is still a sea with all the highs and lows of wave traverse, and ravages of weather, but indications were that it was a pleasant first leg of their journey.
The journey from Copenhagen goes south for some time, not too, far from the main island of Zealand from which they just left. They will pass another Danish island called Moen (Mon in Danish). Here, they were able to see Moen’s Klint, Denmark’s magnificent white cliffs rising some 450 feet above the Baltic. This sighting was reported by other passengers, and we can probably assume that the Nielsens also viewed this majestic landmark. Maybe we can assume too that they were at the ships railing, looking at this sight and pondering their history, homeland and future. This sight may have been the last they saw of their homeland for we don’t know the exact route of the Aurora nor what they could see from this route. The final few miles of their route of necessity took them between their island home of Lolland and Kiel, Germany, but it would have been in the early morning; so we don’t know if they indeed could or did see their Lolland. We do know though that they were able to see Moen’s Klint, and thus it is used on the back cover of this narrative to indicate the finality of the Nielsen’s migration from their homeland of Denmark.
The Aurora would steam on that afternoon and through the night across the open Baltic. By 7:00 A.M. the next day, May 29, the vessel was gently making it’s way within the confines of the lovely Kieler Fjord toward the docks of the magnificent harbor of the City of Kiel, Germany. In 1866, Kiel was an attractive City of about 24,000 people, possessing one of the finest harbors in all of Europe, and a rail connection to Altona where they needed to go. Altona lies on the river Elbe about two miles or so from Hamburg, and within walking distance of their transport vessel to America. By 7:30 A.M., they were docked in Kiel, and leg two of their long journey had been completed. And all is well.
Leg 3-Tue. May 29-Kiel, Germany to Altona, Germany
It would take about three hours to get all of the luggage and 529 people off of the ‘Aurora,’ and over to the train station. The rail station at Kiel possessed a fine waiting room, so some degree of comfort and security was to be had while waiting. This next leg of the journey was by train; so the people and luggage had to get from the docks to the train station. One of the emigrants indicated that they walked the distance from ship to train. The railroad was probably not far from the berthing of the ‘Aurora.’ We can assume that most passengers walked to the railroad carrying some luggage while carts and wagons hauled the bulk of the luggage and some women and children.
The train left Kiel at 10:00 A.M..on Tuesday, May 29,1866. They were now in Holstein the Dukedom which is part of the Schleswig-Holstein controversy previously mentioned. Kiel had been the center of the Provisional Government of the German forces in the war that Peder Christian had been part of back in 1848-1850. What were his thoughts as he moved through Kiel and Holstein on his way to America ? Had be been here before ? In 1864, the 2nd Schleswig-Holstein conflict had erupted between Germany and Denmark. The Nielsens were in the middle of another war as they traveled through this area. Kiel at this time was again or still the heart of this conflict. This conflict was not as serious as before, because there is very little mention of it. By 1867, Prussia under Bismark, had annexed Schleswig-Holstein
Their destination was Altona, a town next to Hamburg on the river Elbe. This rail route would take them in a southerly direction through the green and lovely countryside of Holstein. They were all settled onto this decent German train racing along at about 30 miles an hour, and making the usual stops as needed. Their traveling distance was about 75 miles, and this rail journey would occupy about three or four hours due to those stops. It was the first train ride for most of these humble migrant Saints, probably including the Nielsens. Holstein is described as very beautiful. It is a rural dairy and farm country. The rail ride was pleasant, and brought the migrants to Altona by early afternoon on this May 29 of 1866. They had completed leg 3 of their journey, and all is well.
Leg 4-Tue. May 29-Altona Germany to Hamburg Germany
This leg of our narrative is short. It was about 2:00 in the afternoon of this May 29, when the emigrants for the most part started their walk from the train station of Altona to the dock area of Hamburg. Here again the luggage and some of the women and children were probably transported by wagon, while most emigrants walked.
It was necessary to walk down a hill to the banks of the river Elbe, where the women and children boarded a little steamer and went by water, while the men walked a mile or two along the river Elbe to the Emigration House in the dock area of Hamburg. The Humboldt and the Cavour lay at anchor out in the middle of the wide expanse of the Elbe. We can only imagine the excitement and thrill the emigrants felt within themselves as they studied those magnificent tall masted sailing vessels riding majestically in the water. These are the magic carpets that would take them across the Atlantic ocean to America.
Tomorrow, they will go on board, but now, they would rest and prepare for the ocean voyage. Preparation for this voyage was no small thing. Most of the personal preparation should have been accomplished by now. The mission leaders would be checking to be sure that each and every emigrant was properly equipped for the voyage. The lack of preparation of any one person would become a burden on others, and that would not do in the middle of the ocean. Proper clothing, sleeping material, food, snacks, and personal hygiene materials etc would need to be on hand. These things and more must be taken care of right now.
Identification and registration details would need to be processed with the German authorities. Lists made, and all the normal paper work needed in international travel. This large company will now be divided into the two smaller companies necessary for the ocean journey in two vessels.
The emigrants will spend the night in the emigration house, and take care of all the details required of emigration. They probably had the evening to perhaps take a walk or do some last minute shopping in Hamburg if needed. Tomorrow they will board the Cavour, happy day, and all is well.
Nielsen Migration Part -4- Cavour Passenger List, other 1866 vessels
Contributor: smithc Created: 2 years ago Updated: 2 years ago
Peder/Magdalena Nielsen & Family 1866 Migration Part -4-
Cavour Passenger List, 1866 Vessels used-Kennilworth, Cavour, and Humboldt.
Three Scandinavian Emigration Companies (name used for groups of emigrants) in three different vessels left Hamburg on a direct route to New York in 1866. A total of 1213 emigrants made those voyages. They all left Hamburg within ten days of each other, but their Salt Lake City arrival had a spread of 22 days.
The first ship to leave with Scandinavian emigrants that year was the Kennilworth. She left Hamburg on Wednesday May 23,1866, sailed a few miles down the river Elbe then anchored. On Thursday, May 24, Mission President Carl Widerborg along with Elders Niels Wilhelmsen and Christian Christiansen came on board and organized the company. The 684 emigrants were organized into forty-two messes, with associated leaders and routines. Of the 684 persons, 583 were from Denmark,23 from Norway, 73 from Sweden and 5 from Germany.
The Kennilworth sailed out of the Elbe and passed Cuxhaven into the open sea on Friday May 25. Their route was straight out around the north of Scotland toward Iceland then a left or “port” turn into the open Atlantic. At first, the winds were contrary up past Norway and Scotland, then they were favorable for about three weeks. During the last five weeks, they encountered continuous headwinds and fog, making a long journey. They arrived in New York on July 16, and went ashore to Castle Garden on July 17. Kennilworth was a large double-decked American built, but English registered vessel of 987 tons. It was almost three times the weight of the Cavour. It was165 feet long 34 feet wide with a height of 24 feet. The journey was 52 days in duration. During the voyage, there were 12 deaths, 7 marriages and 2 births aboard. The captain was an agreeable person. He and the ship’s crew were very touched and impressed with the decent emigrants, and treated them very well. The provisions were satisfactory and the sick received good attention.
The Cavour was the second vessel to leave Hamburg. She was built in 1865 in Langesund Norway, and has the distinction of being the only Norwegian flag vessel ever to transport LDS emigrants to America. She was the smallest vessel used in 1866, being 121 feet long and 27 feet wide, with a height of 15 feet. She weighed in at 369 tons, which makes it one of the smallest of all the emigrant vessels ever to cross the Atlantic. On board, there were 201 Latter Day Saint emigrants headed for Utah. Including Peder and Magdalena Nielsen and their three children. They were under the leadership on Elder Niels Nielsen (no relation) from Brigham City, who was released early from his mission to fulfill this task. His assistants were Jens Gregorsen and Carl F. Rondquist. There seems to have been other non LDS passengers on board too. The Captain and part owner was A. Foyen of Norway He was in partnership with M. Tonning of Norway. During the voyage, two ladies, three children and two men of the company died. Seven of the 201 didn’t make it to America. Sadly, three of these died in New York Harbor, and one just before reaching New York. One seaman named Isaac Ohlsson was also lost on July 28 at 3:00 P.M. He fell overboard from the bow and went under the ship. He was seen bobbing and bloody, but was soon lost sight of. An extensive search was made, but he was never found. He, and the others who died, each had a solemn and appropriate shipboard funeral service.
The voyage became long, due to headwinds, fog, and calms. There was one marriage, and no births on board. Upon arrival in New York Harbor, 5 very sick saints were removed from the ship and taken to the Ward Island hospital. One of them died within a week, one died within a month, two made it to Utah the following year, and the status of the other is unknown, and presumed to have died in the hospital, but this is not verified. The sadness of these deaths and sickness may be offset by the fact that the majority of the Saints had a successful voyage and were delighted to be in America. The company is now 12 short of the 201. These casualty numbers are not out of line when compared with all the other emigrant voyages of that era. Luckily 2 of the 12 made it later.
Humboldt was the third and final vessel to leave Hamburg that year, having left on June 2. During the voyage, five persons died, but no marriages or births. In addition to the Saints, there were almost 70 other passengers on board. She made the fastest time arriving in New York on July 18. That was one day after the Kennilworth had arrived, and she had left six days before the Humboldt. The Humboldt’s 46 day journey eclipsed the 53 day journey of the Kennilworth by one full week, and the 61 day journey of the Cavour by two full weeks or 15 days.
Humboldt was German built at 789 tons, being 157 ft long, 32 feet wide and having a 22-foot draft. It was quite a lot larger than the Cavour. It was a fine ship, and had been used four years earlier for an emigrant transport from Hamburg to New York taking 323 Saints. She was a full “three master” and square-sail-rigged thus qualified to be called a ship. The Cavour was barque rigged with inline sails fore and aft on the mizen and foremast. Humboldt was faster being square rigged. Unfortunately, Humboldt was lost at sea shortly after this voyage, possibly on the return trip to Hamburg. The Humboldt had collided with another ship off Newfoundland on its way to New York. Damage was considered minor and continued on.
Barque rigging such as found on the Cavour required fewer hands on deck, and therefore less expensive to equip and operate. A barque is a good vessel. There had been many built and operated in the 1800s. Some of them did cross the Atlantic. They possessed better control, making them fit for coastal, small ocean and short hop work. A barque is adequate for ocean voyages, but not as good as square rigged vessels called ships. A barque is not considered a ship, it is a barque. A ship requires that it be square sail rigged and three masted. A schooner is rigged differently, and is therefore a different classification Altogether. Most of the vessels used to transport emigrants across the Atlantic were square rigged and therefore rightfully called ships. Around seamen, do not call a barque a ship, because it is indeed a barque (bark).
The Kennilworth and Humboldt both sailed straight out from Germany and west of the British Isles. The Cavour sailed east of the Isles through the English Channel. This was a shorter route, but due to its rigging, and more headwinds, calms and fogs, the Cavour took much longer. All three vessels passed the Newfoundland area where fog was encountered. All three vessels had tail-winds for the first couple of weeks. Head-winds, calms and fog for the remainder of the voyage. They all encountered storms and heavy seas of varying degrees at times.
–CAVOUR PASSENGER LIST–JUNE 1, 1866--
#–NAME– -BIRTH-AGE– --HOME– --STATUS--
1-Andersen, Anders 1837 29 Falster, Denmark
2-Andresen, Anton E.1840 26 Vestby
3-Benggvist, Johanna 1834 32 Sweden
4-Benggvist, C.P.1836 30 Sweden
5-Benggvist, Elisi 1863 3 Sweden
6-Benggvist, Johannes P.1826 40 Skojfde
7-Bengtson, Mathilda 1857 9 Skojfde
8-Bengston, August B.1862 4 Sweden
9-Berg, Nilla M.P.1840 26 Pr. Frederikstad
10-Berg, Hanna E.1863 3 Pr. Frederikstad
11-Bernbom, Anne M.1800 66 Lolland,-Died in Chicago Aug 6,Buried in Quincy
12-Bernbom, N.1807 59 Denmark
13-Bjork, Johanna Sofia1846 20 Smoland, Sweden
14-Bocker,Mathilda1857 9 Ytterby
15-Bolin,Johan F.1845 21 Sweden
16-Bonnevier,Frederik Wilh.1834 32 Hult
Christensen,Dorthe 1839 27 Lolland
17-Christensen,Anders J.1862 4 Lolland, Denmark
18-Christensen,Anne Sophie1865 1 Lolland, Denmark
19-Dahl, Anne (daughter)
22-Frederiksen, Peter 1849 17 Lolland, Denmark
23-Gregersen, Dorthe1842 24 Reersnes, Denmark
24-+Hansen, Anne Kirstine1802 64 Honsinge, Denmark -Died at sea June 10
25-+Hansen,Chatrine1806 60 Thingsted, Denmark -Died on the trail Sep 11
26-Hansen, Birthe1816 50 Falster, Denmark -Died on the trail August 26
27-Hansen, Dorthea 1822 44 Lolland, Denmark -Died on the trail August 6
28-Hansen, Rebecca1823 43 Fuen, Denmark -Died on the trail August 16
29-Hansen, Anne1827 39 Lolland, Denmark -Died on the trail August 22
30-Hansen, Peder1828 38 Lolland, Denmark
31-Hansen, Kristine1834 32 Lolland,-Left at station in Chicago Aug 6
32-Hansen, Jens Peter1843 23 Falster, Denmark
33-Hansen, Lars1843 23 Lolland, Denmark
34-+Hansen, Jens Peter1846 20 Honsinge, Denmark
35-+Hansen, Maren1846 20 Lundby, Denmark
36-Hansen, Maren1846 20 Moen, Denmark
37-Hansen, Karen M.1848 18 Zealand, Denmark
38-Hansen, Maren C.1850 16 Fuhnen
39-Hansen, Maren K.1850 16 Fuen, Denmark
40-Hansen, Elizabeth1852 14 Zealand, Denmark
41-Hansen, Karen Elizabeth1852 14 Falster, Denmark
42-Hansen, Jens1853 13 Lolland, Denmark
43-Hansen, Jorgen1853 13 Lolland, Denmark
44-Hansen, Nicoline C.1853 13 Fuen, Denmark
45-Hansen, Niels R.1855 11 Fuen, Denmark -Died on the trail August 16
46-Hansen, Anne C.1857 9 Fuen, Denmark
47-Hansen, Jorgen1857 9 Lolland, Denmark
48-Hansen, Niels A.1858 8 Lolland, Denmark -Died on the trail August 26
49-Hansen, Hans Peter1859 7 Fuen, Denmark -Died on the trail August 24
50-Hansen, Niels P.W.1859 7 Lolland, Denmark
51-Hansen, Mads Jorgen1860 6 Falster, Denmark -Died in Wyoming, Nebraska Aug 12
52-Hansen, Hans D.1862 4 Lolland, Denmark -Died on the trail October 11
53-Hansen, Joseph Johan1863 3 Lolland, Denmark
54-Hansen,AnneMarie Sophe1864 2 Lolland, Denmark
55-Hansen, Hans H.K.1865 1 Lolland, Denmark -Died at sea July 29
57-Hason, Ann B.
58-Haugum, Johan F.1818 48 Cania, Norway
59-Haugum, Karen1823 43 Hedim, Norway
60-Hedlund, Carl J1826 40 Sweden
61-Hemmander, Christina1835 31 Sweden
62-Hendriksen, Anne1806 60 Kjaldersna, Den -Died at 3am St Jos, Mo., Aug 9,
63-Ingebretsen, Andkers sailed on either the Cavour or Humboldt
64-Isacksson,Gustaf1837 29 Kallby
65-Jacobsen, Jens1839 27 Sweden
66-Jansson, Johanna1841 25 Gerdseum, Sweden-Marr. Inga Svensen at sea July 24
67-Jensen, Anne M.1844 22 Lolland, Denmark -Died on the trail August 15
68-Johansen, Anne Dorthe1815 51 Lolland, Denmark
69-Johansen, Hans Peter1817 49 Lolland, Denmark
70-Johansen, Josephine1849 17 Frederikstat, Norway
71-Johansen, Johan1864 2 Cania, Norway
72-Johansson, Johanna1809 57 Sweden
73-Johansson, Anders1811 55 Trondheim
74-Johansson, Maria1815 51 Broby
75-Johansson, Britta E.1818 48 Skepsaas, Sweden
76-Johansson, Janne1837 29 Wittlosa
77-Johansson, Johanna1837 29 Sweden
78-Johansson, Christina1845 21 Husaby, Sweden
79-Johansson, Johan F.1851 15 Husaby, Sweden.
80-Johansson, Gustafva1857 9 Husaby, Sweden
81-Johansson, Ida1863 3 Wittlosa, Sweden
82-Jonsson, Carl1814 52 Halmstod, Sweden
83-Jorgensen, Jorgen1800 66 Fuen, Denmark -Died on the trail Sept. 25
84-Jorgensen, Kirstine1806 60 Fuen, Denmark
85-Jorgensen, J. Christian1834 32 Fuen, Denmark
86-Jorgensen, Anders C.W.1851 15 Fuen, Denmark
87-Kaven, S.J.1836 30 Sweden
89-Kock, Herman W.1836 30 Norrkoping, Sweden
90-Kock, Mathilda1840 26 Norrkoping, Sweden
91-Larsen, Jens P.1806 60 Falster, Denmark
92-Larsen, Anne1815 51 Falster, Denmark
93-Larsen, Anders1820 46 Ronga
94-Larsen, Christina1820 46 Ronga
95-Larsen, Jens1825 41 Lolland, Den-died 2:30 pm 9 Aug -St. Jos. Mo
96-Larsen, Lars P.1829 37 Zealand, Denmark -Hospital in New York, July 30
97-Larsen, Anne M.1834 32 Lolland, Den-Died Wyoming, Neb. August 13
98-Larsen, Annette Math.1839 27 Moss
99-Larsen, Barbara Kirstine1839 27 Fuen, Denmark -Died in NY harbour July 30
100-Larsen, Maren1839 27 Zealand, Denmark
101-Larsen, Hans1847 19 Vesterberg
102-Larsen, Else1850 16 Falster, Denmark
103-Larsen, Niels1852 14 Zealand, Denmark -New York hospital July 30
104-Larsen, Lars Peter1857 9 Lolland, Den-Died Wyoming, Neb. August 13
105-Larsen, Peder1857 9 Zealand, Denmark
106-Larsen, Anne K.1858 8 Lolland, Denmark
107-Larsen, Botilda1858 8 Ronga
108-Larsen, Hans1859 7 Zealand, Denmark -New York hospital July 30
109-Larsen, Karen1861 5 Zealand, Denmark -New York hospital July 30
110-Larsen, Olaf1862 4 Ronga
111-Larsen, Lars1863 3 Ronga
112-Larsen, Lars1865 1 Zealand,Denmark -Died at sea Jun 21
113-Larsson, Sara Britta1826 40 Gjerstad, Sweden
114-Larsson, Johan A.1834 32 Waarsberg, Sweden
115-Larsson, Anders G.1855 11 Gjerstad, Sweden
116-Larsson, Anna Christina1863 3 Gjerstad, Sweden
117-Lund, Johanna1833 33 Sweden
118-Lund, Lauren1849 17 Zealand,Denmark
119-Lund, Axel1859 7 Sweden
120-Madsen, Karen1820 46 Moen, Denmark
121-Madsen, Henning 1821 45 Moen, Denmark
122-Madsen, Peter1848 18 Moen, Denmark
123-Madsen, Rasmus1850 16 Moen, Denmark
124-Madsen, Hanna1855 11 Moen, Denmark
125-Madsen, Christian1860 6 Moen, Denmark
126-Matisen, Niels Chr.1829 37 Witlinge, Denmark
127-Matisen, Juliane1836 30 Witlinge, Denmark
128-Matisen, Hans1858 8 Witlinge, Denmark
129-Matisen, Christian1862 4 Witlinge, Denmark
130-Mikkelsen, Christian L.H.1844 22 Zealand, Denmark
131-Mikkelsen, Eveline A.1949 17 Odense, Denmark
132-Mikkelsen, Josephine B.1849 17 Zealand, Denmark
133-Mortensen, Rasmus1862 4 Falster, Denmark -Died at sea July 26
134-Myre, Elizabeth18442 2 Gerslof, Sweden
135-Nielsen, Magdalene1822 44 Lolland, Denmark
136-Nielsen, Peder Christian1823 43 Lolland, Denmark
137-Nielsen, Petrea S.1851 15 Lolland, Denmark
138-Nielsen, Johan1858 8 Lolland, Denmark
139-Nielsen, Tora1862 4 Lolland, Denmark
140Nielsen, Ole1833 33 Zealand, Denmark
141-Nielsen, Rasmus1836 30 Zealand, Denmark
142-Nielsen, Marthea A.1838 28 Zealand, Denmark
143-Nielsen, Lars Hen.1840 26 Fuen, Denmark
144-Nielsen, Kersli1843 23 Hadeland, Norway
145-Nielsen, Maren Chr.1862 4 Zealand, Denmark
146-Nielsen, Rasmus Chr.1865 1 Zealand, Denmark
147-Nielsen, Karen1849 17 Falster, Denmark
148-+Nielson, Karen1849 17 Skorby, Denmark
149-Nilsson, Maria C.1814 52 Skepsaas -Died on the trail August 16
150-Nilsson, Sven Peter1816 50 Rappstad
151-Nielsen, Johanna1824 42 Scona, Sweden
152-Nilsson, August T.1857 9 Linkoping, Sweden -Died on the trail August 20,
153-Nilsson, Carl E.1862 4 Linkoping, Sweden
154-Ohlson, Carl Whilhelm1826 40 Sweden
155-Olsen, Ane Marie1815 51 Zealand, Denmark
156-Olsen, Anne1824 42 Denmark
157-Olsen, Niels1830 36 Falster, Den.-Died 11pm in St Jos, Mo., August 8
158-Olsen, Inger1851 15 Skeen
159-Olsen, Frits1852 14 Falster, Denmark
160-Olsen, Severin1857 9 Falster, Den-Died Wyoming, Neb. August 12
161-Olsen, Josephine1858 8 Falster, Denmark
162-Olsen, Karen M.1860 6 Falster, Denmark
163-Olsen, Peter1861 5 Falster, Denmark
164-Olsson, Anna B.1824 42 Gillbergg, Sweden
165-Olsson, Carl Wilhelm.1826 40 Sweden
166-Olsen, Johan1854 12 Gillbergg, Sweden
167-Olsson, Hanna1859 7 Gillbergg, Sweden
168-Pedersen, Rasmus1820 46 Fuen, Den.-Left to die, Quincy, Illinois , August 7
169-Pedersen, Anne M.1822 44 Fuen, Denmark -Died on the trail August 31
170-Pedersen, Larsine1842 24 Lolland, Denmark -Died on the trail August 16,
171-Pedersen, Sophia1842 24 Lolland, Denmark
172+Pedersen, Lars1845 21 Fuen, Denmark
173-Pedersen, Kirstine1850 16 Lolland, Denmark
174-Pedersen, Hans T1951 15 Fuen, Denmark
175-Pedersen, Nils C.1855 11 Fuen, Denmark
176-Pedersen, Jens1859 7 Fuen, Denmark
177-Pedersen, Mette Marie1865 1 Fuen, Denmark
178-Pehrsson, Anna1799 67 Kyrkohedinge, Sweden
179-Pehrsson, Carl J. Edler1842 24 Skrettinge, Sweden
180-Petersen, Peter -Died on the trail August 16
181-Petersen, Bodil1838 28 Falster, Denmark
182-Rasmussen, Maren1806 60 Falster, Denmark
183-Rasmussen, Jens P1810 56 Falster, Denmark
184-Rasmussen, Erik1839 27 Fuen, Denmark
185-Rasmussen, Hans Peter1840 26 Falster, Denmark -Died on the trail August 16
186-Rasmussen, Maren J.1840 26 Thorig -Died on the trail August 19
187-Rasmussen, Johanne M.1841 25 Falster, Denmark
188-Rasmussen, Karen1841 25 Faen -Died Quincy, Illinois August 6
189-Rundgvist, Gustina1841 25 Sweden
190-Rundquist, Caroline1832 34 Fryserum
191-Rundquist, Carl Oscar1834 32 Kongsholm
192-Rundquist, Carl Frederik1837 29 Ronneby
193-Rundquist, Carl A.1863 3 Grebo -Died in St. Joseph August 9
194-Rundquist, Emma S.1865 1 Linkoping
195-Sandersen, Nicoline K.M.1817 49 Moen, Denmark
196-Sandersen, Sander1820 46 Moen, Denmark
197-+Sandersen, Anne K.1826 40 Moen, Denmark
198-Sandersen, Otte Marie1848 18 Moen, Denmark
199-Sandersen,Christian1850 16 Moen, Denmark
200-+Sandersen, Christian1855 11 Moen, Denmark
201-+Sandersen, Anne K.1857 9 Moen, Denmark
202-Sandersen, Edmond1857 9 Moen, Denmark
203-+Sandersen, Niels Jacob1858 8 Moen, Denmark -Died on the trail August 19, 1866
204-Sandersen, Emma1859 7 Moen, Denmark
205-+Sandersen, Frederik1859 7 Moen, Denmark
206-Sandersen, Frederikke1861 5 Moen, Denmark
207-Sandersen, Petrea Marie1862 4 Moen, Denmark
208-Sandersen, Johannes1863 3 Moen, Denmark -Died on the trail Sept. 20, 1866
209-Sandersen, Margarita1866 infant Moen, Denmark
210-Sanderson, N1866 infant Denmark
211-Schultz, Bottvig L.1865 infant
212-Sjoblom, George A.1860 6 Malmo
213-Sorlie,Anne Marie37 Hedemark
214-Sorlie, Caroline 13 Aker
215-Sorlie, Edvart 8 Aker
216-Sorlie, Hyrum 3 Christiania
217-Sorlie, Josephine 1 Christiania
218-Sorlie, Peter 10 Skedsmo
219-Stormfeldt, Petronella1810 56 Malmo, Sweden
220-Svensson, Inger Stine1842 24 Sweden -Married Johannas Jansson at sea July 24
221-Svensson, Jorge1842 24 Sweden
222-Svensoon, Anders John1844 22 Jesta, Sweden
223-Wahlback, Axel W.1859 7 Sweden
224-Wall, Johanna1820 46 Straangsryd
225-Wall, Albertina D.1857 9 Gyllerya
226-Wall, Augusta M.1859 7 Motala
227-Wall, Hulda1862 4 Motala
228-Warnick, Anders Peter 18016 5 Waarsaas -died Aug 10-St. Joseph, Mo.
229-Warnick, Anna H 1806 60 Sundstrop -died on train Marcella, Mich. Aug 5
231-Warnick, Johan August 1834 32 Forsby
232-Warnick, Anna Christ 1839 27 Forsby -left dying in St. Joseph, Mo. Aug 11
233-Warnick, Maria Ch.1843 23 Elgarass
234-Warnick, Anders G.1846 20 Forsby -Died on the trail August 27
235-warnick, Carl Petter1851 15 Forsby
236-Warnick, Augusta C.1863 3 Elgaraas -Died on the trail Sept. 23
237-Warnick, Johann1864 2 Sweden -Died in St Joseph Mo., Aug 7
238-Warnick, Charlon1866 InfantSweden -Died on the trail August 24
239-Warnick, Charlotte1866 InfantSweden
240-Nielsen Niels Elder in Charge of company
The following have been mentioned in the diary of Magnus Cederstrom as having died or been sick. They were either not on the passenger list or have a name variation.
1-Christjanson, Christina-died 7am, Aug 9- St. Joseph, Mo.
2-Christiansen, Dorothy-died 7am Aug 10-St. Joseph, Mo.
3-Cederstrom, Magnus-keeper of a good diary-
4-Widow Hansen (Unknown duplicate name) -died 9 am Aug 9-St. Joseph, Mo
5-Anna Christine Larsen-died 6pm, Aug 7, on train through Mo.-bur. St. Jos. Mo.
6-Carl (Peter?) Rundquist-From Norkoping-died 6:30 am, Aug.9-St. Joseph, Mo.
7-Anna Sorensen 30 Lolland -died 8 am Aug 9-St. Joseph, Mo.
Elder Niels Nielsen a returning missionary from Brigham City, Utah was placed in charge. His assistants were Jens Gregorsen and Carl Fred Rundquist. The company was organized into four districts under: Ole Nielsen, a brother Jacobsen and the two assistants named above.
Nielsen Migration Part -5- Hamburg to New York 1866
Contributor: smithc Created: 2 years ago Updated: 2 years ago
Peder/Magdalena Nielsen & Family Migration Part -5-
Leg 5-June 1-July 31-Hamburg, Germany to New York, USA.
On Wednesday, May 30,1866, the emigrants were transported by steam tugboat from the emigration house and docks of Hamburg out to the Cavour in the middle of the Elbe. During that Wednesday, May 30, Thursday, the 31, and most of Friday, June 1, the Cavour remained at anchor in the Elbe with the emigrants on board. The passengers were receiving instructions, getting settled and organized for the voyage. The Captain and crew were taking care of their own last minute details. When the emigrants were ready, and the Captain received all reports of readiness, the towboat was called for. The line (large rope) was attached from the bow of the Cavour to the stern of the tug, and the anchor was winched up. The Cavour was ready.
It was on Friday, June 1,1866 at 3:15 P.M. when the Cavour left Hamburg. A steam tugboat began the towing of the Cavour. Towing of sailing vessels in and out of the Hamburg harbor was a necessary step in 1866. A sailing vessel does not possess sufficient control in any direction within the confines of such a harbor. Towing was part of the costs and time frame of shipping in most major ports. Towing will again occur when the Cavour reaches New York.
The Cavour was taken from the harbor area of Hamburg. It will go with the flow of the Elbe down past Altona to the sea at the slow rate of speed that a 1866 tugboat would muster or be allowed to go. The weather was clear and pleasant and a soft wind blew. The passengers were enthralled as some of the sails were set, in order to help the tug to move the Cavour along. Everyone on board was in good health and high spirits with the exception of two older sisters and one child. They were feverish and indeed ill, but were still going on the voyage.
The Cavour continued the 68 plus miles down the Elbe to the open sea. The sun soon set and darkness prevailed, but the Cavour kept on moving down the river. Early the following morning June 2, they stopped. It was 4:00 A.M. And they encountered fog. The captain halted the tow, and the anchor was dropped. The Cavour was at the mouth of the Elbe. The tow boat would no longer be needed, as the open sea was close by. The Cavour lie poised at the edge of the North Sea pointed in the direction it wanted to go, but it had to wait for the fog to lift. It wasn’t safe to proceed. They were at the wide mouth of the Elbe where it flows into the North sea. Cuxhaven, the last German City on the coast was off to their left. They were ready for the ocean.
They waited until 10:45 A.M. then the anchor was hauled in and the sails raised. The sails soon filled with the soft breeze blowing at the time and the Cavour began to move. Soon it began the constant pitching, rolling and lurching that ocean travel produces. This was the beginning of the types of constant movement that they must endure for the next 60 days till they would reach New York City on July 31,1866. A left or ‘port’ turn was soon made, and the route along the coast of Germany, Holland and France down through the English Channel was established, but they would be sailing in the huge North sea for five more days before they would actually be in the English Channel as such. They would spend a few days going through the channel, then they would emerge into the Atlantic Ocean where they would remain until reaching New York. The passengers would not be able to tell when one body of water merged into another. It is assumed that the crew would know and keep them advised. All is well.
A RECONSTRUCTED LOG OF THE 1866 JOURNEY OF THE CAVOUR
L DS Emigrant Company Roster Count at departure=201
The Cavour : A Barque (bark) rigged sailing vessel built in 1865 in Langesund, Norway. Displaced 369 tons, 121 feet long, 27 feet wide and a hull depth of 15 feet. Three masts fore and aft rigged. Owned by M. Tonning and A. Foyen. A. Foyen was the Captain. The only Norwegian flag vessel to carry LDS emigrants to America, and also one of the smallest. It sailed from Hamburg Germany on June 1, 1866 with 201 Scandinavian Emigrants under the direction of Elder Niels Nielsen. It arrived in New York on July 29,1866, and passengers disembarked on July 31 after 61 days.
There were seven deaths during the entire voyage, and five taken off sick in New York of whom two of them died later. There was one marriage on board, and no births. One crewman fell overboard and was lost. The future usage and eventual fate of this vessel is unknown.
Sometime in the earlier part of May, agents of the Church contracted with the ship’s owners to charter this ship to carry LDS emigrants from Hamburg to New York.
Tue May 29-The Cavour is in Hamburg Harbor waiting and preparing for the emigrants.
Wed. May 30-Saints taken from shore in small steamers to board the Cavour.
Thu. May 31-Saints waiting on board in Hamburg Harbor, preparing to sail.
Fri.June 1 - 3:15 P.M. The Cavour left Hamburg, and was towed through the night down the Elbe river about 60 miles to the North Sea and anchored because of fog.
Sat . June 2 - 10:45 A.M. fog cleared, and a nice breeze. Raised the anchor and set sail. Entered the North Sea. Course south-westerly along the coast, direct to Channel.
Sun. June 3 - Same good breeze still blowing. On course
Mon. June 4 - 9:00 P.M. encountered heavy rain and lightning, which lasted the entire night.
Tue. June 5 - Brisk wind most of the time. Many seasick.
Wed. June 6 - More of the same conditions.
Thu. June 7 - Good weather the whole day, passengers feeling better.
Fri. June 8 - Entered the English Channel, light wind blowing.
Sat. June 9 - Made over 13 miles in a short time of measuring. There was a good wind.
John Nielsens 8th birthday–In the English Channel, Probably no cake or ice cream
Sun. June 10 - Slight wind, clear, weather good. 8:30 a.m. Anne Kirstine Hansen a 64 year old widow from the islands conference died. Ill with a fever for eight days.
This is death number=1
Mon. June 11 - Good wind. Many seasick.
Tue. June 12 - Good wind. Many seasick.
Wed June 13 - Good wind. Many seasick.
Thu, June 14 - Bad wind. Less sickness.
Fri June 15 - Entered the Atlantic Ocean.
Sat. June 16 - Weak wind blowing against us in the morning.
Sun. June 17 - Strong wind storm.
Mon. June 18 - Weak headwind.
Tue. June 19 - Calm in the evening. Carl Whilhelm Olson was released as captain of the watch and Olof Nielsen was chosen to take his place.
Wed. June 20 - Strong wind and rain in the morning, clear later.
Thu. June 21 - Good wind. 7:00 p.m. Eighteen month old son of Lars Larsen from Zealand died after a long illness
The known dead number=2
Fri. June 22 - Good wind. 10:00 a.m. burial ceremony with greatest solemnity.
Sat. June 23 - Good wind, but calm in the evening.
Sun. June 24 - Good church-service in the morning. Evening was spent with amusements.
Mon. June 25 - Calm.
Tue. June 26 - Storm. Heavy lurching, rough, frightening, women screamed.
Wed. June 27 - Good wind. General health good.
Thu. June 28 - Good wind. Tragedy at 3:00 p.m. Seaman Isaac Ohlsson fell overboard and was lost. An extensive search was done, but he was not found.
--This crew member death is not counted on the count of the company roster--
Fri. June 29 - Good wind.
Sat. June 30 - Calm.
Sun. July 1 - Strong wind. 11:30 p.m. Lars Larsen’s wife Lissa Christine died at the age of 42, after a long illness..........The known dead number=3
Tora Nielsens 4th birthday-middle of the Atlantic-probably no cake & ice cream
Mon. July 2 - Strong headwind. Funeral Service at 2:00 p.m. for sister Larsen. She was buried with the greatest solemnity. General health otherwise good.
Tue. July 3 - Slow wind.
Wed July 4 - Calm. Cleaning and a general search for parasites.
Thu. July 5 - Soft wind in the morning. Good service, at 11:00. Crew was invited.
Fri. July 6 - Slight wind.
Sat. July 7 - Strong wind and fog. General health good.
Sun. July 8 - Calm and foggy. Had a little recreation in the evening.
Mon. July 9 - Light southeasterly wind. Fog in the evening.
Tue. July 10 - Light headwind and fog.
Wed . July 11 - Weak breeze for half a day, then good wind, but cold.
Thu. July 12 - Clear light headwind,. Some fishermen sighted off the banks of Newfoundland. Saints had a little recreation in the evening.
Fri. July 13 - Clear in the morning. Good wind in the afternoon.
Sat. July 14 - Foggy in the morning with headwind, Good wind, and Clear in afternoon.
Sun. July 15 - Clear with headwind. Good service at 4:oo p.m.
Mon. July 16 - Rainy weather. Soft breeze in sails. Clear in the evening.
Tue. July 17 - Clear and calm. A slight breeze with rain in the evening.
Wed. July 18 - Foggy with slight breeze. Headwind in the evening.
Thu. July 19 - Fog. Headwind in the afternoon. Light favorable wind in the evening.
Fri. July 20 - Clear with good wind all day. Niels Nielsen addressed passengers concerning the lack of regard for being united in prayer at prayer time, etc.
Sat. July 21 - Clear and warm in the morning. A mild favorable breeze in the afternoon.
Sun. July 22 - Clear in the morning. Good meeting at 2:00 p.m. Rain in the evening.
Mon. July 23 - Calm before noon. Rain in the evening.
Tue. July 24 - Good wind in the afternoon. 3:00 p.m. Johanna Jansson and Inga Christine Svensson were married by Elder Niels Nielsen.
Wed. July 25 - Clear with light headwind.
Thu. July 26 - Clear with light wind. Sharks were seen and fired at by brother Nielsen.7:00 pm Jens Larson’s adopted son Rasmus Mortensen, died at age-4 yrs,7 Months 26 days, ill for six weeks.
The known dead number=4
Fri. July 27 - Clear, soft favorable wind. At noon, the boy was buried with greatest solemnity and a salute. Cloudy in the evening.
Sat. July 28 - Clear with light Headwind. Distant cannon fire was heard. The Captain told them another vessel was trying to attract the attention of the pilots, because they were nearing New York.
10:00 a.m. Small schooner brought the pilot. He came on board. Good wind,.Some thunder, lightning and rain.
4:00 p.m. Land was sighted . All were overjoyed, many women cried.
7:30 p.m. Anchor cast overboard, sails secured, and all went to bed.
Sun. July 29 - 4:30 a.m. the anchor was hauled in and sails raised. Slight headwind. 9:30 a.m. Calm, so anchor was dropped and sails secured.
1:00 p.m. Light favorable wind, hauled anchor and set sails.
4:30 p.m. Doctor came on board. Because of sickness, he forbid further travel.
5:30 p.m. Anchor was cast overboard and sails secured.
6:00 p.m. Ship secured. Captain and pilot went ashore.
9:30 p.m. Hans Hansen from Zealand died at the age of 26. Ill for 5 weeks
The known dead number=5
10:00 p.m. All passengers and crew called together for prayer. “Niels Nielsen the presiding Elder expressed his feelings, and thanked God from the bottom of his heart for bringing us across the mighty deep and asked him to bless the captain and all the crew for their love, goodwill and humanity towards us to which we all said amen, and also that they might come to a knowledge of the truth and acknowledge it, to which the Saints also said amen, and that all the honest in heart in our dear fatherland might understand and accept the Gospel and like us be freed before the wrath of the Lord is poured out over the wicked. To which all the saints said amen.”
11:00 p.m. Margarita Christine Sandersen died. Age 9 months. Ill 5 weeks
The known dead number=6
Mon. July 30 -Seven tug boats came alongside looking to tow them in.
7:00 a.m. B. K. Larson died. Had been sick 14 years
The known dead number=7
8:00 a.m. Inspection Committee came on board and registered all the passengers.
9:00 a.m. The sick were taken to the hospital at Ward Island, they were:
Lars Larsen from Zealand, Denmark age 37-(Died in hospital 30 days later.)
Niels Larsen from Zealand, Denmark age 14-(Recovered, went to Utah in 1868.)
Hans Larsen from Zealand, Denmark age 8 -(Recovered, went to Utah in 1868.)
Karen Larsen from Zealand, Denmark age 5-(Died of typhoid within a week.)
Moren Federsen age 27-Status unknown
The known dead number=9
9:30 a.m. The dead were removed. We all stayed up on deck while the ship was fumigated.
10:00 a.m. The Captain again went ashore.
3:30 p.m. The pilot came on board again. The anchor partly raised and the sails set.
4:30 p.m. Tug boat was attached and towed the Cavour closer to land. At this point, they were probably in the Hudson River just off the Battery. 5:30 p.m. The anchor was thrown out again. The weather was rainy.
Evening: The greater part went to bed, but because it was so warm and there was so much confusion they were called to get up again.
Evening: The Saints began to march, then they danced for two hours.
Tue. July 31 -Early in the morning, all the passengers gathered up their belongings to be ready to land.
All the Saints turned in all their money to have it changed.
9:30 a.m. Thomas Taylor, the Church immigration agent and William H. Folsom, his secretary, came on board, and the money was turned over to them.
10:00 a.m. The pilot came on board again.
11:30 a.m. Thomas Taylor, William Folsom and Niels Nielsen went ashore.
3:15 p.m. Thomas Taylor and Niels Nielsen returned with a towboat.
4:00 p.m. The passengers disembarked from the Cavour. “They all gave a hearty ‘Farewell’ and shouted hurrah from all sides.”
4:00 p.m. The emigrants were loaded onto small river steamers and taken directly from the Cavour into the secured confines of The Castle Garden Immigration Center at the shoreline on the tip of Manhattan Island.
--In Castle Garden, the Emigrants from Scandinavia were processed into Immigrants to America. It was a speedy process.
--All the Immigrants’ letters’ were taken to the post office.
–The Immigrants’ money was returned to them as US currency.
–Elder Thomas Taylor instructed the immigrants in matters pertaining to Being in America and details about the remainder of their journey.
--10:00 p.m. The immigrants finished at Castle Garden. The healthy ones walked while others rode several blocks to the East River dock #25 to board the large night steamer ‘Elm City’ for the next leg of their journey to New Haven, Connecticut. They had to hurry, the steamer will leave at 11:00 p.m.
This it did on that Tuesday, July 31, 1866, with all the Immigrants on it. All is well.
New York in 1866
New York in 1866 was indeed an imposing and welcome sight as seen by emigrants on an emigrant ship after almost nine weeks of seeing just ocean. As they entered this magnificent harbor, there were: The green hills of Staten Island on the left, the buildings of New York City on Manhattan straight ahead, Brooklyn on the right then the docks of new Jersey on the left, some islands in the middle, dozens of docks all over the place, the myriads of small and large boats moving continuously in all directions, even the curious roundish shape of Castle Garden right straight ahead. There was also the Barge Office, that old Victorian building not far from Castle Garden. This Barge Office was the place where the immigration agents and other port authorities came from and were housed. The breeze brought the smell of the vegetation and flowers from the shore to the ship. It was delightful. The women were so very happy and grateful, they cried. Perhaps some of the real men cried too.
It’s a fact that New York harbor is naturally protected from the open sea. After passing what is known as the narrows between Staten Island and Brooklyn, the bay opens up into this large wide channel called the upper bay, with waterways going off in three directions. These waterways are: the gigantic Hudson river straight ahead, the large East river to the right, and to the left is Newark bay. The East and Hudson rivers are very wide, and keep going past New York City providing access into the inner workings of the Eastern United States. This makes New York the unprecedented market-place that it is. Essentially, almost the entire world can meet right in this Harbor, and close examination would show that it almost does.
The ‘slips’ in the dock area are filled with vessels of practically every flag, arriving and departing around the clock. Those in limbo such as these emigration vessels, or others without a designated slip in which to dock are anchored out in the open bay and rivers. The water is busy; small “lighters”(local freighters), tow-boats, tugboats, pleasure boats, pilot boats, water supply boats, barges, police boats, naval boats, shuttle boats and cruise boats going in every direction.
In 1866, these small boats were both steam and sail. All the pilot boats were sail at this time, and each one had a large number posted on the rear sail for identification. The ‘tows’ and ‘tugs’ were steamers, needed for maneuverability and power. The steamers posted a tall smokestack which helped these early steam engines. The tall stack helped the fire of the boiler draw air and burn hot, providing the needed efficiency.
Many of these boats did nothing more than tow, tug, supply or shuttle people between ships and shore. The Cavour is a good example, she was met in the open sea before the harbor with a numbered pilot boat, and many tug boats looking for business. In the harbor, small shuttle steamers brought the immigration agents and medical personnel out to the ship. They took the sick and dead to shore, did more shuttling of the Captain and agents. Then these small steamers took the emigrants into Castle Garden. Small boats are indeed the life blood of the harbor.
1866, was a transition year for shipping. Ships were in-transition from sail to steam. In America, the Civil War had just finished, and the shipping industry was still “readjusting” from a war-time setting. The age of the magnificent clipper ships was winding down as passenger vessels. The Clippers were victims of the steam era, having to settle for bulk cargoes and fewer ‘hands on deck’; so masts were “cut” to use fewer sails and be cheaper to operate, but also slower.
The European shipyards were going ‘full-steam’ ahead so to speak to build steam powered vessels. They had been doing so for years, but now they were out to corner the market on such ships while the US shipping industry was still down and out after its own devastating war.
In this year, sailing vessels still dominated the total tonnage of goods into and out of New York Harbor by six times over steam. This would remain the case for cargo goods, but not for passenger travel. The direction of passenger travel was indeed toward steam. Ships of sail were still just fine or better for “cargos and goods”. People were a different story. The sooner a Captain could get his “human cargo” across the deep, the less cost and trouble he would have. Steam therefore was the obvious answer. Smaller companies and individual entrepreneurs would hang on with the affordable sailing ships for as long as they could, which was well up into the 20th Century, with their cargoes primarily of bulk goods, and some passengers.
There were many emigrants in this time period who had wealth, and they crossed the Atlantic in steamships, an easy two-week comfortable venture. Those without financial resources such as the Nielsens endured the two-month venture. Both types of ventures came to America in droves. The United States possessed many ports of entry from the Atlantic side. New Orleans was used a lot, as was Philadelphia, Boston and others. Most Immigration, though, was through New York.
New York City during that July 31 of 1866 was extremely hot and humid. The emigrants had two months of cool breeze aboard ship, and they may not have been prepared for the sudden excessive change of temperature. The heat of New York did affect them greatly. Fortunately, Castle Garden was a large, open and insulated building. There was a fountain inside, and the place was cool. The immigrants found relief within its walls. They could rest in comfortable theater seats while they waited for their processing. It was the right place for this job of immigration.
Castle Garden as a building, initially saw life in 1811 as the South-West Battery. It was to be one of the five forts to protect New York City against the British Navy during the rumblings preceding the war of 1812, and then during the war itself. It was originally built on a small rocky island some 200 feet from shore, with a gated drawbridge on the ramp to shore. It was an impressive 600 feet across, and was equipped with 28 guns in its unique circular construction covering a wide shoot. The walls were heavy sandstone a good eight feet thick.. The British never came into New York, so the guns were never fired in anger, but only at target practice hulks in the bay, and once during the 28th anniversary of the American revolution.
After the war of 1812, the South-West Battery became the headquarters of the Third Military District overseeing the area of Manhattan. The name was then changed to Castle Clinton because of the Castle appearance, and to honor De Witt Clinton, the Mayor and later Governor of New York. In 1821, the military headquarters were moved to Governors Island in the bay. Castle Clinton became military surplus. Two years later in 1823 it was ceded to the City of New York.
On July 3,1824, Castle Clinton opened as an amusement center for the City of New York with a new name. It was now called Castle Garden. This is the name it would have for some 150 more years. It became one of the favored places of New York City, with world class entertainment. It had opera, concerts and other events. It was roofed over in the 1840s, and this created the larger silhouette we see in old pictures, and the configuration that the Nielsens experienced as they passed through. The whole area round about became known as the Battery. It still is.
In 1850 Jenny Lind the famous ‘Swedish nightingale’ performed her American Debut to 6000 attendees. That event was produced by P.T. Barnum. After the performance, the audience burst into a ‘tempest of cheers.’ Castle Garden became the favorite place in New York for ship to shore landings of dignitaries from all over the world, and especially American Presidents. In the 1800's, four Presidents made their ‘grand entrance’ into New York City at Castle Garden. It was a natural spot for such superlative events.
Immigration to America before 1855 was a bit loose. Foreign ships would land at a pier, and immigrants would merely register with the Captain or someone similar, and walk away. They were in. This process soon became problematic, and a central place to process immigrants was needed. Castle Garden was eyed, and adopted for such. On August 3,1855, Castle Garden, under lease to the state of New York, opened as the new “immigration landing depot.” in preparation for this, Dutch immigrants, experts in landfill, were hired and earth brought in. Soon the Garden was part of Manhattan Island. This is the way it is today as the “Battery.”
The area was fenced off with a thirteen-foot high fence for the isolation that an immigration depot would require. Part of the reason for the fence is that immigrants were ‘easy-pickins’ for the unsavory types who would prey on them in many different ways. Many immigrants were cleaned out before they could get established. These con men knew all the tricks to pull on the poor unsuspecting immigrants. The fence did indeed stop most of this. Now the immigrants were advised, warned and educated about these predators before hitting the streets.
Between 1855 and 1890, more than eight million immigrants went through Castle Garden. The Nielsens were five of that number. On April 18,1890, the Federal Government took over immigration, and Castle Garden was closed. The old barge office was used as a temporary center while a new facility was built at Ellis Island. On Jan 1, 1892, Ellis Island took over and operated until the end of 1924.’
After 1890, Castle Garden became the City aquarium for New York. It served as such until 1941, and the fish were moved to the new facilities at the Bronx Zoo and Coney Island. The old Castle lay sort of abandoned, and demolition started with the removal of the wooden roof of over 100 years of age. Preservationist stepped in and saved it . The old eight foot sandstone walls, now make up the “Castle Clinton National Monument.” It is a park headquarters, museum, bookstore information center and ticket booth for entrance to the Statue of Liberty.
In that 1855 conversion to an immigration center, the seats or benches that had been used when it was a theater, were left in-place. They would be very useful for the immigrants to rest and sleep on while in the center. The immigrants especially liked the old first class seating area. The theater stage that was located in the center of the large open-air room, was removed, and a huge fountain was installed that could throw a jet of water high into the air. Processing counters and desks were also in the central area.
Two 20x50 ft bathing and restroom facilities were on the outside edge. One for the men and one for the women. Each contained a large tub, big enough for twelve to be in. There was also a trough large enough for fifty to “stand and scrub.” There was plenty of hot water. Bathing was a mandatory step for processing. They were made to use soap, and were given towels.
To heat the large central room, there were two huge coal-fired stoves six or seven feet high strategically located within. All around the top on the second floor, was a balcony called the ‘old gallery’ seating area. This was not actively used by the center, and the immigrants were allowed to sleep there. There were often some 3000 people doing such. There were security personnel who patrolled the entire center. Discipline and disorder were not much of a problem. There was no smoking, and drinking was not allowed. Alcoholic beverages were “confiscated and poured out before the eyes of the owner.”
Children were allowed to make paper boats for sailing in the huge fountain. During sleepless nights, men would stand around the huge stoves and discuss events of the world, even when the language didn’t work. Lighting was by gas-light. There was a large safe and secure baggage dock on the side. Wagons would be seen there hauling the luggage and belongings away as contracted. The Cavour company probably hired some of these wagons to take their belongings to pier 25, while the immigrants walked.
There were many information desks and areas with language translation available, maps and guides were provided, banking facilities, postal facility, job and occupation information, housing placement desks. There were eating facilities and small stores where the immigrants could purchase foods, snacks and things they might need. There were ticket agents authorized to sell legitimate tickets for rail, ferry and ship transportation. From New York, rails, ferry’s and ships went in all directions of the compass, and during all hours. Some reports show that about two out of every five immigrants stayed in New York City. The authorities wanted all to move on out of the Garden as soon as possible, even if they were staying in the City.
The immigration people desired that the processing of people be as fast and correct as possible. Which is a sensible plan. Some immigrants would linger for days, and others only hours. The Cavour company was one of the latter. Their processing must have been expedited, because the group went through in only six hours. They were in at approximately 4:oo p.m., and out by 10:00p.m. The LDS agent Thomas Taylor and his assistant must have cut some red tape.
There were no indications of cholera problems or deaths while in the Garden. Perhaps the relief of being back on land, or the coolness of the Gardens, or the good fresh drinking water available, or getting a nice hot bath or some better food, or all of the above revived the spirits of the immigrants. This we know though, the seeds of the cholera had been sown in the bodies of the immigrants, and it was broiling and maturing within. Those infected may not have known of their forthcoming fate. They would yet have a few more days or weeks of life. But the germ of destruction was there. It may have been well hidden and without significant symptoms at this point, for there is no mention of pain, illness or problems during this time.
The Nielsen’s visit to New York had captive overtones. Their first view of America, the land of the free, was New York City, yet in reality they were not able to partake of the big City or freedom just yet. Being constrained as immigrants on the Cavour and in Castle Garden, relegated them to the position of observers. They were still just numbers to be processed. They were still at the mercy of the immigration authorities. They were not yet ‘in.’ They were not yet “American.” They still had an anxiousness locked up within themselves, and the persisting question of all immigrants. Will I make it ? Will I be sent back ? They must have felt comfortably sure that they would make it, because things were going well, but some anxiety must have plagued them a bit.
However, they did walk out of the immigration center of Castle Garden at about 10:00 p.m. that Tuesday night of July 31,1866. They were free and the newest potential Americans you could be. It must have felt good to them. They had been processed through in six hours. That was great, and again all is well.