A Biography of Mary Catrena Rasmussen (1864-1938)
Contributor: MDSIMS Created: 3 years ago Updated: 3 years ago
[Compiled by a great-great granddaughter, from existing searchable family records, in 2014. While I have attempted to create an accurate story, I appreciate any corrections, as needed. Not having a personal history of Mary Catrena, I felt that she deserved to have her story told.]
MARY CATRENA RASMUSSEN’S EARLY LIFE
On 13 July 1864, Mary Catrena Rasmussen, the third child, and second daughter of Mads Peter Rasmussen and Karen Maria Sorensen, was born in the tiny rural Mormon town of Richville, Morgan County, Utah, nestled within the pine forested Wasatch Mountains. Morgan County receives a large amount of snow. The melting snow runs downhill in creeks, joining into the Weber River, a river 40 miles long, that flows from the tops of the Wasatch Mountains, down through the valley, into the Great Salt Lake.
Mary’s parents, Mads Peter and Karen Maria, were both Danish immigrants to America. Mads Peter had been born at Tillerup, Randers, Denmark. Karen Maria Sorensen was born at Bjergene, Aarhus, Denmark. Both were raised on family farms in Denmark, were christened into the State Church of Denmark, the Lutheran Church, soon after their births, and had converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), after being taught by LDS Missionaries. Mads Peter and Karen then immigrated to America in 1857, and traveled to the Salt Lake Valley, to gather with the Saints.
After arriving in Utah, Mads Peter and Karen decided to move to the young farming community of Centerville, Davis County, Utah, which had been founded ten years earlier. Sadly, their first daughter, Mary Catrena’s older sister, Laura, b. 1860, in Centerville, died when only a few months old. The family rejoiced when Mary Catrena’s older brother, Peter, was then born in Centerville, in 1862.
THE RASMUSSEN'S LIFE IN CENTERVILLE, DAVIS COUNTY, UTAH
Karen must have been overjoyed, when, in 1863, her parents, Soren and Ane Margrethe, and younger siblings: Baltasar, Mette, Peder, and Ane, finally arrived from Denmark, and settled in rural Richville, Morgan County, Utah. It had been six long years since the family had been together. Karen and Mads Peter were probably anxious and eager for Karen’s parents to be introduced to their new little grandchild, Peter.
THE RASMUSSENS MOVE TO RICHVILLE, MORGAN COUNTY, UTAH
Karen and Mads Peter moved with their toddler, Peter, to be near Karen’s family, in Richville, at that time, in about 1861, and become reacquainted.
The first settlers of what later became the town of Richville had arrived in the area only a few years earlier, in 1859. The valley had been found by settlers from Centerville, in 1852, while they were in the eastern mountains cutting logs. These settlers noted that the area had plenty of fish and game, although it was difficult to travel to, having only one canyon to access it. In 1855, a few men built a rough road into the valley, using shovels, picks, crowbars, and small plows. The early settlers, a blend of English and Scandinavian immigrants, began homesteading, building dugouts, and starting farms.
The early dugouts of Richville had sod roofs, which always leaked in wet weather. One early settler of Richville had the excitement of a snake falling from the ceiling onto the dinner table as the family was eating. In 1863, the first schoolhouse/meetinghouse in Richville was built by the people of the town. A year later, a new little daughter was born to Karen and Mads Peter: Mary Catrena Rasmussen was born on 13 July 1864, in Richville, Morgan, Utah. At that time, most of the pioneering women, like Mary Catrena’s mother, were still living in the leaky dugouts. Pioneering in a small frontier town was very difficult. The average snowfall in Morgan, Utah was 60 inches a year. The snow would usually arrive in October, and continue through May.
In 1866, the first gristmill (a mill which grinds grains into flour) was built in Richville, to serve local farmers. The gristmill of Richville was the first in the entire county of Morgan, so it attracted business from farmers all over the area. Morgan County was six hundred ten square miles, nestled within the Wasatch Mountains. While it is unclear from records, Mads Peter and Karen likely were living with friends or relatives, on their farms, helping with farmwork, and saving up money during these years.
In 1868, there was welcome news for the people of Richville, and the surrounding areas: Brigham Young contracted with the Union Pacific Railroad to build part of the transcontinental railroad though Weber Canyon, helping to supply the area with goods, transportation, and needed jobs. The area of Richville became one of the largest lumberyards in the territory during the construction of the railroad. Sawmills from surrounding areas brought their lumber to Richville, to be cut into railroad ties, and delivered to the railway construction sites. The forests of the Wasatch Mountains became major suppliers of wooden railroad ties.
It is likely that Mary Catrena’s husband, uncles and grandfather, being residents of Richville, were able to obtain work, and earn money, helping to supply lumber for the transcontinental railroad that was being built at that time through the Wasatch Mountains. This would have been a great blessing to these immigrant families who were trying to get established in a new country.
LIFE IN FARMINGTON, DAVIS COUNTY, UTAH
After a few years, Mary Catrena’s parents, Karen and Mads Peter, had saved enough money that they managed to purchase a farm shortly before the birth of their fourth child, George Henry, on 8 September 1866. Mary was two years old, her brother Peter, 4, and her sister Laura, 6. The farm was in the small Mormon farming town of Farmington, Davis County, Utah, located between the Wasatch Mountains, and the Great Salt Lake.
At that time, Farmington had Utah’s first courthouse, which was built in 1854-55, a two-story adobe building. The courthouse was used for town meetings, court sessions, and church services. The town had about 400 residents, when Mads and Karen moved there. Farmington contained a log school building and several mills, and a mud wall partially surrounded the town. A fine new meetinghouse had been built in 1862-64, of fieldstone.
The Farmington farm of Mads Peter and Karen Rasmussen had a small adobe house, which, according to one of their sons, was warmer than the log homes that many people in Utah lived in at that time. The adobe was air tight, being made from mud bricks that were mixed from clay and straw, and then dried in the sun for days, until hardened. Being a diligent and hard worker, Mads Peter managed to purchase or trade for some livestock, including a few cattle and horses.
Life appeared to be going well for the young family, when two years later, Karen found out she was expecting twins. Unfortunately, at this time, Karen and Mads Peter apparently had a quarrel, which broke up their marriage. While precise reasons are uncertain, according to family traditions, among the descendants of Mads Peter’s later wives, Mads Peter was fond of practical jokes. One day, as Karen was rounding the corner of their home, Mads Peter tossed milk from a bucket, into Karen’s face. Whether intentional or not, Karen was so upset, that she left Mads Peter, moving in with her parents. Karen took the younger children, Mary Catrena, 5, and George Henry, 2 1/2, with her, and the oldest, Peter, age 7, stayed with his father. Soon after, the twins, Annie Margaret, and Joseph Soren, were born, on 7 May 1869. Whether any other contributing factors led up to Karen’s decision, is unknown.
MARY CATRENA RASMUSSEN'S PARENTS DIVORCE
Family records then state that either Karen or Mads Peter, moved to Weber Valley, at this point, and then to Salt Lake Valley. Mads Peter then decided to move to Montpelier, Bear Lake, Idaho, with his son, Peter.
In about 1869, or 1870, a divorce was granted between Karen and Mads, and Karen met a kind man named John Cheney. Karen decided to marry John as a second, or, plural wife, in Richville, Morgan, Utah, in 1871. John’s first wife was Samantha Jane Dicksen. At that time, John and Samantha had three children together: Julia, age 10; John Elijah, age 6; and Billa Judson Cheney, age 4. At that time, Karen had Mary Catrena, age 7; George Henry, age 5; and the twins, Annie Margaret and Joseph Soren, both age 2.
JOHN CHENEY'S FAMILY
John Cheney had been born in Scott, Cortland, New York, in 1824, to Elijah and Achsa Thompson Cheney. Elijah and Achsa had both been baptized members of the LDS Church in their forties, on 9 February 1832, after being taught the gospel by Elder Jared Carter. Elijah was immediately ordained an Elder, following his baptism. Elijah and Achsa were the parents of 10 children, John Cheney being the seventh.
In the winter of 1833, not long after his baptism, John’s father, Elijah, was invited by his friend and neighbor, Zera Pulsipher, to serve a brief, spontaneous mission, and taught the gospel to several, including Wilford Woodruff (who later became an LDS Apostle, and Prophet of the Church). Of this event, Wilford Woodruff later reported,
“For the first time in my life, I saw an Elder in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. That was Zera Pulsipher. He told me that he was inspired of the Lord. He was threshing grain in his barn when the voice of the Lord came to him and told him to arise and go to the north, the Lord had business for him there. He called upon Brother [Elijah] Cheney, his neighbor and a member of the Church. They traveled sixty miles on foot … in deep snow, and the first place they felt impressed to call upon was the house of my brother and myself. They went into the house and talked with my brother’s wife, and they told her who they were and what their business was. They told her that they were moved upon to go to the north, and they never felt impressed to stop anywhere until they came to that house. When they told her their principles, she said her husband and her brother-in-law both were men who believed those principles, and they had prayed for them for years. They appointed a meeting in the schoolhouse upon our farm.
“I came home in the evening, and my sister-in-law told me of this meeting. I had been drawing logs from the shores of Lake Ontario (I was in the lumber business), and I turned out my horses, did not stop to eat anything, and went to the meeting. I found the house and the dooryard filled with people. I listened for the first time in my life to a Gospel sermon as taught by the Elders of this Church. It was what I had sought for from my boyhood up. I invited the men home with me. I borrowed the Book of Mormon, and sat up all that night and read. In the morning I told Brother Pulsipher I wanted to be baptized. I had a testimony for myself that those principles were true. Myself and my brother … went forth and were baptized—the two first in that county.”3
Elder Pulsipher baptized Wilford Woodruff in a creek on December 31, 1833, and confirmed him on that same day. Three days later, Wilford Woodruff received the Aaronic Priesthood and was ordained to the office of teacher. This was the beginning of a lifelong ministry in the Lord’s service. Looking back on that day, he said, “My mission immediately commenced.”4
Elijah Cheney, and his friend, Zera Pulsipher, traveled and preached the gospel on and off (between planting and harvesting on their farms) for the next three years.
Elijah and Achsa Cheney and their family then moved to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1835, where Elijah met the Prophet Joseph Smith, and helped in the construction of the Kirtland LDS Temple. Elijah and Achsa then moved to Missouri, where they were driven out by hostile mobs, moving several times, until arriving in Nauvoo, Hancock, Illinois, where Achsa Thompson Cheney died, at age 56, in 1845. Elijah, 60, was then a widower, and married, secondly, Sarah Harmon, 56, in 1846, while still in Nauvoo, and came west with her in 1849. At that time, seven of Elijah and Achsa Cheney’s children were still living.
Records are unclear, as to which of Elijah and Achsa’s 7 living children came west to the Salt Lake Valley, and why they all seemed to travel separately. The fourth child, Zacheus Cheney, joined the Mormon Battalion, and came west in 1847. John Cheney, the seventh, came west, apparently, in 1849. The youngest, Joseph Thompson Cheney, came west in 1850.
John Cheney’s life after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, for eleven years, is unknown, although we do know that John Cheney married Samantha Jane Dickson, on 12 April 1860, in Farmington, Davis, Utah. John and Samantha Cheney moved to Richville, Morgan, Utah, sometime after their marriage, and before the birth of their children. John and Samantha had three children together, born in Richville, Morgan County, Utah, in 1861, 1865, and 1867. While in Richville, John Cheney became acquainted with Mary Catrena’s divorced mother, Karen. Karen married John Cheney as a plural wife, about 1871, in Richville, Morgan, Utah.
Mary Catrena’s younger brother, George Henry Rasmussen, later said that his stepfather, John Cheney, "was very good to us children, and was anxious to see us get ahead." John made certain that his children attended school. John was also kind to Karen. Once, when she had been ill, he rode on horseback to a distant town, to purchase a half pound of rice, for her, just because she thought she might like some.
MARY'S FATHER, MADS PETER RASMUSSEN, MARRIED ANNA GERDRUD CLAESSON
On 25 January 1870, Mary’s father, Mads Peter Rasmussen, 33, remarried, to a Swedish LDS immigrant lady named Anna Gerdrud Claesson, 33, in the Endowment House in Salt Lake City, Utah. At that time, Mads and Anna lived in Ovid, Bear Lake, Idaho. Mads and Anna eventually had 8 children together: Annie Maria, b. 1870; Amanda Alfreda, b. 1871; Albertina, b. 1873; Albert, b. 1874; Amos, b. 1875, d. 1875; Agnes, b. 1875; Hyrum William, b. 1879; and (stillborn daughter), b. 1881.
A TRAGIC EVENT
A tragedy occurred to Mads and Karen, and their new families, in April 1872, in Montpelier, Idaho, where Mads Peter lived with his second wife, Anne Gerdrud. Mads Peter was planning to take a trip on horseback to the town of Ovid, on business. As part of this trip, Mads Peter would be required to cross a stream in the area, which, at that time of year, could be swollen into a fast-moving river, with the runoff from melting snow, pouring down from the surrounding mountains, making it difficult to cross. After Mads Peter had left, Anne Gerdrud, feeling anxious for Mads Peter’s safety, asked Mary Catrena’s oldest brother, Peter, now age 9 ½, to take one of the family’s other horses, and follow after his father, as far as the stream, and then return home, to report on his father’s well-being, and put her mind at ease.
After Mads Peter had successfully crossed– not knowing his young son, Peter, followed behind him– and reached the far bank of the swollen stream, he looked up and noticed the young boy was on horseback on the far side, about to follow his father into the water. Young Peter’s horse entered into the stream, before Mads Peter could stop him. The horse, struggling through the current, lunged forward, throwing the young boy into the swift water. Mads Peter dove into the water, attempting to rescue his son. The swift water, muddied from the silt, and racing with the current, swept the boy under and out of view. Mads Peter searched frantically, but to no avail. Friends and neighbors were sought for help, but the boy’s body could not be found until nine days afterward. This was a very sad loss to both Mads Peter’s family, and Karen’s. The young boy was buried in Ovid, Bear Lake, Idaho, April 1872. Mary Catrena was 8 years old, when she lost her older brother.
MARY CATRENA'S GRANDFATHER, SOREN PEDERSEN/DALSGAARD, DIED
Later that fall, only a few months later, Karen’s father, and Mary Catrena’s grandfather, Soren Pedersen/Dalsgaard, died at the age of 67, on 23 October 1872, in Richville, Morgan County, Utah, and was buried there, at the Porterville Cemetery. Mary Catrena was 8 years old at that time.
MARY CATRENA'S FATHER, MADS PETER RASMUSSEN, MARRIES AGAIN
In 1873, Mary Catrena’s father, Mads Peter Rasmussen, 37, married a third time, to a plural wife: Anna Maria Ahlgreen, age 19. Anna Maria Ahlgreen was a Swedish LDS Immigrant, as was Mads' wife, Anna Gerdrud. Mads Peter and his current wife, Anna Gerdrud, had three young children at that time. Mads Peter and Anna Maria eventually had ten children together, including: Albert, b. 1874; John Augustus, b. 1874; Amos, b. 1875; David William, b. 1876; Alma, b. 1878; Emily Wilhelmina, b. 1880; Willard Frederick, b. 1883; Elizabeth Frederecka, b. 1883; Alice, b. 1886; and Ada May, b. 1889.
MARY CATRENA'S STEPFATHER, JOHN CHENEY, DIED
A few years later, Mary Catrena, now age 11, faced another heartache, when her stepfather, John Cheney, died, on 15 March, 1875, in Richville. This left Mary Catrena’s mother a single mother, once again. Karen, now 43, became a widow with six children to support and raise on her own. There were the children of Mads Peter: Mary Catrina, age 11; George Henry, age 9; and the twins, Annie Margaret and Joseph Soren, age 6. Karen also had the children of John Cheney: ‘Axie’ age 3; and David James, age 1. Being the oldest daughter in the family, although still young, Mary Catrena’s responsibilities probably increased, along with her mother’s. Mary Catrena later told her children and grandchildren, that, by this age, she was sewing clothing for her family members.
MARY CATRENA'S MATERNAL GRANDMOTHER, ANE MARGRETHE BALTZARSDATTER/DALSGAARD, DIED
Only a few months after her stepfather John Cheney's death, Mary Catrena’s grandmother also died, only two days after Christmas, and only three years after the death of her husband. Ane Margrethe Baltzarsdatter/Dalsgaard, age 69, died that winter, 27 December 1875, in Richville, Morgan County, Utah, and was buried in the Porterville Cemetery. Karen’s parents had probably been a help and a support to Karen, after her divorce, and prior to their deaths. This loss must have been particularly difficult for Karen. Mary Catrena’s uncles, Baltasar and Peder Rasmussen, still lived nearby, with their wives and families. They likely helped their sister, Karen, when they could.
KAREN'S LIFE AS A WIDOW AND SINGLE MOTHER
Mary Catrena’s little brother, George Henry, age 9 at his stepfather’s death, helped their mother as much as he could by cutting and hauling firewood for her, and by working for neighbors, doing chores on their farms, to earn a little money. However, it was decided that George Henry, when age 10, should move to Montpelier to live with his father, Mads Peter, and his wives, Anne Gertrude, and Anna Maria, and their families. Karen’s other children, including Mary Catrena, remained with her in Richville.
George Henry attended the small town school in Montpelier, Idaho, and helped his father, Mads Peter, to feed cattle and to cut the ice of Bear Lake, during the winter. Mads Peter had a business, cutting and storing ice from Bear Lake, which he would sell to towns in the area, in warmer weather. George Henry also helped his father with another business, harvesting salt from a salty natural spring, and bagging and selling it.
MARY CATRENA GETS A NEW STEPFATHER, MR. NEILSEN
In early 1878, Mary Catrena’s mother, Karen, age 46, remarried to a Mr. Neilsen (first name unknown). Mr. Neilsen intended to build a home for Karen. He moved her and her family to a sod home on Wilson Lane, Weber County, Utah. Mr. Neilsen was not a member of the LDS Church.
Unfortunately, as time went on, Karen found that Mr. Neilsen disliked children, and 'mistreated' them. Karen’s oldest daughter, Mary Catrena Rasmussen, age 14, left home as soon as she could. Mary was acquainted with a young man in her hometown, named Arthur Benjamin Clark. Mary, while very young by today’s standards, was at a legal age to be married, and so, decided to marry Arthur Benjamin Clark, as his second, plural wife, on 12 September 1878, in the Endowment House, in Salt Lake City, Utah.
ARTHUR BENJAMIN CLARK
Arthur Benjamin Clark was an English LDS immigrant. His family had come to the Salt Lake Valley in 1864. His father, Daniel Clark, died during the journey, when Arthur was ten years old. Arthur had then been raised by a widowed mother, Elizabeth Gower Clark, with five young children still with her. (The other children had died or were already married).
Arthur and his mother and siblings first went to live in Grantsville, Tooele, Utah, with Arthur’s married sister, Sarah Annie Clark, and her husband, Alma Helaman Hale. Arthur’s other sister, Ellen Victoria Clark, 17, married Alma Helaman Hale a year later, as a second, plural wife. The Hales remained in Grantsville, where they raised their children.
Arthur’s mother, Elizabeth Gower Clark, 48, then remarried, 25 December 1867, as a plural wife to farmer, John Wood, 54, and settled in Richville, Morgan County, Utah, in 1867, where she lived until her death in 1882. Elizabeth Gower Clark Wood still had her younger children: Catherine, 16; Arthur, 13; Rose, 10; and Frederick, 8. They did not live far from Arthur’s married sister, Elizabeth Frances Clark, and her husband, Ebenezer Caleb Crouch, and their family, in Morgan, Utah.
Thus, Arthur lived much of his teen and young adult years in Richville, Morgan, Utah. During the summer of 1874, Helen Margaret Ross was visiting relatives in or near Richville. Arthur met her there, and after a brief courtship, they decided to marry. Arthur married Helen Margaret Ross, in 1874, at the Endowment House in Salt Lake City, Utah.
HELEN MARGARET ROSS CLARK
Helen Margaret Ross Clark was the daughter of Scottish LDS immigrants, David James and Helen Miller Ross. Helen Margaret’s mother had died in Salt Lake City, Utah, soon after giving birth to her fourth child, Helen Margaret’s youngest brother, David James Miller Ross, in 1857. Mary Catrena was probably well-acquainted with Arthur and his family, and perhaps, Helen, for many years, as they both grew up in the small town of Richville.
Arthur and Helen had one young toddler, and another baby on the way, at the time that he married Mary Catrena Rasmussen, as a plural wife. When Mary Catrena’s stepfather, Mr. Neilsen, heard about the marriage, he was so angry, he ordered Mary Catrena to never return home.
PROBLEMS FOR KAREN
A neighbor, becoming aware of the situation in the home of Karen and Mr. Neilsen, contacted Mads Peter. He told Mads Peter that if he cared anything about his family, that he would come to their assistance. Upon his arrival, he found out that Mr. Neilsen was selling off Karen’s property and cattle without her consent. Karen was still living in a sod house, with no effort being made to build her a new one. A lawyer was hired and a constraint was placed against Mr. Neilsen. He could no longer sell any of Karen’s property.
Losing any financial advantage, Mr. Neilsen then decided to leave Karen. Karen was persuaded to move to Montpelier, so Mads Peter could help her look after the children. Karen rented out her farm, and took her unmarried children to Montpelier for a visit. Karen and Mads Peter decided they desired to remarry. However, Karen was told, by authorities, that, since she had originally divorced Mads Peter, she had forfeited her right to remarry him.
Karen then returned to Richville, after having lived in Bear Lake a summer and a winter. Since Karen had rented out her farm before leaving, upon her return, it was still inhabited by the renters. Karen looked for another home to rent, hoping that the rent from her farm would pay her living expenses, although it did not. Karen began to weave carpets for a living.
Karen’s son, George Henry, now age 13 or 14, went to stay with his mother for a visit, to help her out. George Henry was frustrated to find that the renters were cheating his mother out of her share of the crops harvested from her farm. They were also not taking good care of the property, and it was getting run down, until it wasn’t producing. Showing maturity beyond his years, George Henry soon got a job nearby, working to help build the railroad for 3½ years. In 1883, he moved to Richville to be near his mother, Karen. He found a job working on the farm of Mart Lowe. He also worked at cutting and storing ice, and selling it, as he had learned from his father, Mads Peter.
Soon after, Mads Peter, now 46, came to Richville, and offered his son, George Henry Rasmussen, age 17, work. Mads Peter was living in Ashley Valley (now Vernal, Utah) at that time, with his wives and families. Mads Peter had moved south in the hopes of improving his health. Mads Peter was beginning to suffer from rheumatism (arthritis) and dropsy (swelling of fluids under the skin, sometimes an early stage of heart failure). Mads Peter had hoped to move to Arizona, to a milder climate, but only got as far as Ashley Valley, because one of his children became ill. George Henry worked for his father for awhile, and then returned to Richville, to help his mother, Karen.
Hardworking teenager, George Henry Rasmussen, had been working for the railroad, and saving up his money, these past few years. To demonstrate the great love and care that Mary’s brother, George Henry, had for his mother, Karen, George Henry used his savings, and bought 30 acres of his mother, Karen’s 50-acre farm, to give her an income. Then, George Henry built himself a 2-room house on his purchased land, and dug a well. He then dug his mother, Karen, a well. He farmed his mother’s ground, along with his own, and rebuilt the soil until it could produce again. He also cut and hauled firewood for her and provided her with fresh deer meat. Things were beginning to improve for Karen, thanks to the great efforts and sacrifice of her son, George Henry.
MARY CATRENA RASMUSSEN CLARK’S LIFE AS A WIFE AND MOTHER
Meanwhile, Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark lived with her husband, Arthur Benjamin Clark, and his first wife, Helen Margaret Ross Clark, and their little ones, in Richville, Morgan County, Utah, from 1878 until 1881, in the same small log cabin.
In 1881, Arthur moved his families to the small farm community of St. Charles, Bear Lake, Idaho. They lived in St. Charles until 1884.
While living in St. Charles, in the year of 1883, Helen Margaret Ross Clark’s unmarried younger brother, David James Miller Ross, 26, stayed with the Clark family for a year (apparently to help Arthur B. on his farm).
At that time, Arthur and Helen were both 32 years old and had been married for 8 years. Their children were: Daniel, 6; Raymond, 4; Helen Margaret (aka, Nellie) 2; and their baby, David Milson, one month old. Arthur’s second wife, Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark, was 19 years old, and had two children: Alma, 2, and George Hammond, 1. This whole family of 10 individuals, including David Ross, were living in the same small house, at this time. David kept a journal that year, that gives some idea of what the Clark family’s life was like at that time, from his point of view.
The major events of 1883 included the death of Helen’s fourth child, David Milson Clark, and the birth of Helen’s fifth son Frederick James Clark.
Arthur Benjamin Clark was a musician, a singer, fiddler, and accordian player, and he often played the music for town dances, which at that time, were one of the few amusements available to those living in remote farming towns. Musicians were paid for their musical accompaniment at the town dances. In the early days of settlements, the pay was usually produce from gardens, or homemade candles. In later years, the musicians were paid with money. This extra income was very much needed in the early days of living in a new settlement, with a large family of young children to support. Arthur B. also worked as a traveling dentist, extracting teeth, and making false teeth (dentures), and was often on the road.
Living in a new frontier settlement, establishing a successful farm, took several years of clearing rocks from fields, removing tree stumps, and preparing the ground for planting crops. Log cabins, barns, and storage buildings needed to be built for shelter from the sometimes harsh elements, and to store food and animals. Fences needed to be built, to keep livestock from wandering away or getting attacked by wild animals. There was also the continuing need of firewood each day, for the cooking of food, and heating of homes. There was no plumbing, in those days, so water had to be hauled in barrels from local creeks or rivers, to be used in the home, for cleaning, drinking, and preparing food. At that time, the pioneering settler also had to be self-sufficient. This meant, raising and storing all the food the family would need for the year, as well as weaving cloth, sewing clothing, and constructing simple furniture.
The following is a summary of the year 1883, in Richville, Morgan County, Utah, from David Ross’s point of view:
A Year of David James Miller Ross Journal excerpts from 1883
January 1883, (The days of the months are numbered)
1- Arthur B. was away in Liberty, Idaho.
2- Arthur B. was at a dance in Paris, Idaho.
7- Arthur B. rented a farm from the Andersons.
8- The local grist mill (mill where grain was ground into flour) was frozen.
12- Arthur B. went to Paris, Idaho, to theatre and ladies-meeting.
18- Arthur B. went to Montpelier, Idaho (it was 35 degrees below zero that morning). Arthur B. paid [rent?] for the house.
23- Arthur B. went to get wood (probably purchasing logs of wood from a neighbor, or going up the local canyon with a team of horses, to drag logs down.)
26- Arthur B. went to Montpelier to the theatre. Helen’s son, Arthur Raymond Clark, became ill.
27- Arthur became ill. Ray’s illness worsened.
30- Ray began to recover, as did Arthur.
2- (Apparently, David was not getting along well with Arthur, at this point. Tempers were beginning to flare).
4- David Ross went ‘to meeting’ (apparently an LDS Church meeting). Baby David Milson Clark was ‘christened’ in other words, given a name and a blessing, at an LDS Church meeting, probably a Sacrament Meeting.
5- Arthur and a neighbor, Lucius Hale, ‘got into trouble about the canyon road’ as several other neighbors: ‘Swan, Arnold, Hill, and West, would not let them use it. (The record does not give a reason why). West and Lucius Hale nearly fought. West down on Arthur pretty heavy.’
9- Arthur, as a dentist, was in Garden City ‘pulling teeth.’ (In those days, dental fillings were not available. If a tooth became badly decayed, the only solution was to pull it.) Helen’s baby, ‘David Milson Clark,’ became ‘very unwell and Helen stayed up all night with it.’
11- Helen was up all night with her baby, and his illness grew worse. Arthur B. came home, and ‘administered to baby’ (gave his baby a priesthood blessing). Unfortunately, the baby’s illness grew worse, and the baby was ‘suffering much, difficulty breathing all night. Helen feels bad, she and Mary crying.’
12- The baby was ‘still alive but dying gently.’ The baby died, and some ‘Sisters’ (neighboring women) ‘came to help prepare the body’ for burial. Neighbor men, including: ‘H. Pugmire, H. Dalrymple, and H. Booth’ dug the baby’s grave. ‘Sister Young and Sister Allred prepared the body and arranged the coffin. The baby’s body looked beautiful. Helen looked at it and cried.’
(The traditional method of preparing a body for burial in an LDS frontier settlement like this, was for female neighbors and friends to come to the home of the deceased-- as mortician’s were few and far between– wash the deceased’s body, and clothe them in their best clothing, lay the body in a simple casket (if there was one), and comb and style the hair. The men of the community would bring shovels to the homestead, and dig a hole for the casket to be buried in, and a simple headstone would be place at the site of the grave.)
13- ‘Helen slept over at Lucius Hale’s place. At 2 o’clock the funeral was held and the house was filled with friends. Bro.’s Windley, Allred, Hunt, and Wilcox addressed the meeting. The baby looked calm and beautiful, Helen cried some, everything passed off peaceably.’
15- ‘Arthur B. called on (visited) Bro. West last night (about the canyon road) and found him still obstinate, so the Bishop (the local LDS Bishop sometimes counseled members who were having disagreements) told Arthur to set him before the Teachers [of the local ward, who apparently had a talk with Brother West, concerning the use of the canyon road].
At breakfast today Brother’s West and Hill came in and apologized to Arthur B.. Arthur B. and Lucius Hale (went) up the canyon.’ (Arthur and Lucius probably went up the canyon for more logs for firewood and building).
16- ‘Weather clear again, cattle are breaking paths for us (in the deep snow of the valley) as they go to [drink] water [from the river]. Arthur B. home today.’
18- ‘Helen went to Booth’s today.’ (Probably to visit).
20- ‘Arthur at home today.’
23- ‘Arthur went to funeral, two children, four deaths in two weeks, all children.’
25- ‘Arthur and Helen had a big dispute and it grew quite warm, Arthur is infatuated with Old Mexico and has determined to go there.’ [Arthur may have been getting frustrated with the deep snow and harsh weather of Star Valley.]
26- ‘Helen and family departed for Bennington. (To visit her sister Sarah and Brother-in-law, Alma Parker.)
2- ‘Arthur went to Georgetown to pull teeth.’
3- ‘Went to choir practice with Arthur.’
5- ‘Arthur sold his fiddle for two watches.’
8- ‘Arthur chopping wood.’ (Firewood)
10- ‘Helen arrived home, Alma came with her. Went to singing school with Arthur, we all kept Arthur corrected. Home again and Alma started after Arthur about wanting to move to Old Mexico.’
11- ‘Alma went home.’
17- ‘Arthur traded [pocket] watch and violin for spring beds.’
23- ‘Arthur played [music] for two dances.’
25- David Ross asked ‘Helen what she charged me for boarding (letting him live with her family, and serving him meals) ‘with her this winter. She said I could do as I pleased about it.’
26- ‘Arthur cutting wood, (chopping logs into kindling for the fireplaces) he wished me to help him in the afternoon but I did not feel like it. He became sullen towards me.’
29- ‘Arthur is much hurt because I did not help him the other day and we have not spoken since.’
3- ‘Arthur putting in a fence in front and one in the lane.’
4- ‘Arthur working on the fence.’
6- ‘Arthur angry because I spoke when he was talking roughly to Helen.’
7- ‘Arthur still so angry that he would not come in to the house nor eat. He said I should bring Helen and make it right with him, but not considering that I had done anything wrong, I did not comply. Arthur better natured in the evening.’
9- Today, Arthur took David Ross hunting. They may have been running low on stored food. ‘Arthur and I went to the store and bought 50 cents worth of ammunition. We borrowed Hill’s and Herman’s guns and went up the field through the water but got no game.’
10- ‘Danny (Daniel John Clark) has been sick for about a week. Sister Laker here to see Danny.’
12- ‘Arthur feels out of place leading the choir’ and, according to David, ‘his lack of knowledge keeps the choir back. He sings too loudly.’ (Apparently, Arthur had just begun as choir director in his local LDS Congregation, and felt ill-prepared.)
19- ‘Arthur at singing school.’
1- ‘Arthur has been trading horses and has a pretty good team now.’
5- ‘Arthur and I put up a fence about Anderson’s grave lot. It looks best of all the fences. Arthur got a pig from Stewart for three dollars.’
17- ‘Arthur has been watering grain for several days past.’
24- ‘McMillan told Arthur he was a good choir leader and I was a good organist, I think it’s all taffy.’ (This meant that David Ross thought his neighbor, McMillan, was simply flattering him and Arthur.)
26- ‘Arthur plowed potatoes.’
28- ‘Arthur traded’ his ‘watch’ for a ‘sewing machine and lumber.’ (Arthur’s wives were probably thrilled at the prospect of a sewing machine. Prior to this, they probably sewed all of the family’s clothing by hand.)
4- ‘Arthur putting up a kitchen. Arthur plowing some land. Grain looks well. Helped Arthur set some rocks’ (in mortar) ‘for a foundation for a stable.’
15- ‘Shaffer helped Arthur with new barn timber yesterday.’
26- ‘Arthur fixed the barn more, it is now all boarded.’(Apparently, the framework for the barn was completed, and the walls had been nailed up.)
1- ‘Arthur has about enough lumber from the old mill to complete a barn 34 ft. x 20 ft.’
14- David ‘Helped Helen whitewash with blue vitriol to kill bedbugs.’ (Blue vitriol was a pesticide. In those days, mattresses were often made from cloth ‘ticks,’ similar to very large pillowcases, filled with dry straw, corn cobs, cattails, or whatever the pioneer family could find. Likely, these natural fillers probably attracted some insects, or contained insects, when they were filled. Sometimes, bed frames would become infested with little bugs, that would greatly irritate and annoy the occupants of the bed.)
15- ‘Arthur wanted me to help him at Anderson’s and was angry when I would not.’
16- ‘Bear Lake Stake’ Conference was held this day. At the Conference, LDS Apostle ‘Wilford Woodruff spoke.’ Apparently, the part of Elder Woodruff’s speech that made the greatest impression on David Ross, at that time, was that a young man should have ‘no right to kiss a girl except over the altar’ when they were married. Other speakers at the Conference were ‘John Taylor, Geo. Q. Cannon,’ and ‘Joseph F. Smith.’ David does not mention what these other leader’s talks were about.
5- ‘Arthur got kicked by a mule.’
10- ‘Worked for Arthur clearing away stubble for a threshing floor. Arthur had a poor crop because of wild oats. Dentist and photographer in town plying their trades.’
13- ‘Arthur shod Thomas Parker’s horses.’
19- ‘Arthur and I loaded shells.’ (Probably filled shotgun shells, for hunting.)
22- Helen was in Bennington, on an extended visit with her sister, Sarah Jane Ross Parker. This day, ‘Arthur got a letter from her saying all is well.’
23- David ‘Went with Arthur to Bennington,’ to visit Helen, ‘arrived at dusk, Helen looking well,’ and, in David’s words, ‘fat’ (pregnant).
27- ‘We [David, Arthur, and Sarah's husband, Alma] daubed one end of Sarah’s house (Helen’s sister's). (To daub was to fill with mud/mortar, the chinks and cracks in the wall of a log cabin, to keep out the wind and weather). ‘I mixed the mud and Arthur and Alma [Sarah's husband] put it in. Daub is half clay and half chaff (dry straw). Alma is a good dauber and the mixture holds well.’
3- David sold ‘Arthur 5 bu.(bushels of ) potatoes for $1.25.’
28- In David’s opinion, ‘Arthur’s wheat’ was ‘almost unfit for bread,’ or of poor quality, and the local ‘store won’t take it.’ [Earlier, David had mentioned that the wheat had a lot of wild oats mixed in.] In other words, when Arthur took his harvested wheat to the local general store, to trade for other goods, the store refused it, saying it wasn’t sufficient quality for them to accept it.
29- ‘Arthur saw sister Young today and she wants to hire out [rent] her organ at $4.00 a month.’ Arthur felt this was ‘Too much’ for him to afford.
30- David ‘Had a confidential talk with Arthur about our prospects’ financially and occupationally. David ‘Helped him make a door to his barn.’ David also ‘Gave Arthur the hay down on the ranch.’
31- David ‘Paid Arthur’s property tax of $3.35. Arthur met a huge lynx up the canyon this morning and he showed fight.’ (As this was autumn, Arthur was probably up the canyon getting more logs for firewood, to store for the coming winter).
4- Today the weather was described by David as, simply, ‘Raining.’ ‘Arthur’ and I went to Geo. Pugmire’s place and made music and had a talk.’
7- ‘Tried to find a house for Mary. Helen wants her house to herself, but it seems hard to find a place for Mary. Arthur plowing, Mary with him visiting.’
14- ‘Arthur hauling manure.’ [To help fertilize his fields for the next spring's crops.]
15- David ‘Helped Arthur kill a pig.’ (Autumn was the time for a farmer to butcher a pig, in order to dry and cure the meat to preserve for the coming winter.)
22- The weather in Star Valley was turning cold, now. David said that it had ‘Snowed about 6 inches and Arthur and I took a ride on a sleigh.’
23- Arthur went on a visit ‘down to Booths learning tunes.’
25- David rode in a buggy with Arthur, today, ‘going over to meeting’ (probably a church meeting) ‘Arthur talked to’ David ‘about’ his ‘conduct towards girls’ and David, in his words, ‘became sober.’ Apparently, David felt offended that Arthur was giving him unrequested advice, and so he decided not to sing in the choir that day. As Arthur was the choir director, ‘ Arthur sang alone in the choir and was angry.’
26- ‘Arthur and Lucius Hale killed their pig today. Arthur angry that I did not help him. Carried the pig in the house. Arthur got (managed to rent) Wilke’s home for Mary (Catrena Rasmussen Clark) for a dollar a month.’
29- ‘Arthur sick.’
2- A neighbor by the name of ‘Foster,’ David said, ‘allowed the use of a stove’ and ‘Mary’ Catrena Rasmussen Clark ‘will move soon’ out of the first home, she had been sharing with Arthur and Helen Margaret Ross, into a home of her own.
6- ‘Daubed Mary’s house. After dinner we took her things down and cleaned the place and finished daubing.
17- ‘Arthur sick.’
24- ‘Rented an organ till April for $10. Played some’ music ‘with Arthur who had Thomas Francis’s violin. Arthur and I went to the dance.’
25- ‘Christmas, plum pudding dinner, Arthur and I had some music.’
26- ‘Helen gave birth to a boy, [Frederick James Clark] all is well.’
[End of Journal Entries]
While living in St. Charles, Bear Lake County, Idaho, Daniel John Clark, Helen’s oldest son, remembered learning how to ride horses and milk cows. Daniel, age 9, was baptized on 7 October 1885, in Bear Lake, by his father, Arthur Benjamin Clark. Helen had two children born to her in this town: David Milson, b. 1882, d. 1883; Frederick James, b. 1883. Mary Catrena also had two children: George Hammond Clark, b. 1882 and Mary Evelyn Clark, b. 1884.
Major changes were coming for the Clarks. They were about to begin a new adventure, in a new frontier town of Wyoming.
STAR VALLEY, WYOMING
Several years earlier, in the Autumn of 1877, two LDS men, Elder Moses Thatcher and Bishop William B. Preston traveled through the upper Salt River Valley, in Star Valley, Idaho. They found no trappers or settlers in the area, but a large number of Shoshone Indian wickiups, built of willows. They did not see anyone living in them.
In August, 1878, Apostles Brigham Young Jr., and Moses Thatcher and William B. Preston, of the Cache Valley Stake presidency, visited Upper Salt River Valley. They stopped their teams on the west bank of the Salt River at a point about five miles northwest of present-day Afton. A meeting was held here and Brigham Young Jr., dedicated the valley by prayer as a gathering place for the saints. The company had arrived in the valley in the morning of the day on which they held their dedicatory services, which was Aug. 29, 1878. The name of the valley was changed from Salt River Valley to Star Valley.
The first settlers of what later became the community of Freedom, in Star Valley, Wyoming, arrived there in June 1879, from St. Charles, Idaho. These settlers sought to live in a valley where they could live with their families in peace. Polygamy, or, plural marriage, had recently been declared illegal in the United States. U.S. Marshalls had begun searching out and arresting men in polygamous marriages, some serving terms in prison for up to six months or more, and some being fined, sometimes substantial amounts. Because the town of Freedom is located directly over the border of Wyoming and Idaho, families could simply cross the border of one state into another, and visit with friends or relatives, to avoid apprehension.
The first 27 settlers of Star Valley included the Rolphs, Heaps, Hills and Hunts, arriving in the summer of 1879. William Heap brought the first cattle and sheep to Freedom. The winter of 1879-1880 was very harsh, and the settlers struggled to survive. They did not have adequate supplies to last through the winter, with its’ six feet of snow. The snow was six feet deep. The rivers froze over with ice. Holes had to be repeatedly cut through the ice, so that the livestock could drink from the river.
The families had to resort to eating beaver meat to stay alive. Albert and Jay Rolph and William Heap had to make the 67 mile trip to Montpelier, Idaho, in the middle of winter, to obtain flour for the settlers, to stave off starvation. They had begun the journey in a wagon, which made it all the way to Montpelier, but which became snowbound in deep drifts, on the return home. The men then had to bury most of the supplies in the canyon. They wore snowshoes, and each carried 75 pounds of flour on their backs, down the canyon.
The men had to return to the wagon four times during the winter, to retrieve supplies. After the hay and feed ran out, for the sheep, the men and boys had to resort to cutting up willow branches to feed them, and many sheep died.
THE ARTHUR BENJAMIN CLARK FAMILY MOVED TO FREEDOM, STAR VALLEY
A few years later, in the summer of 1885, Arthur Benjamin Clark and five other men, arrived in Star Valley, to select homesteads. Arthur B. then returned to his families in St. Charles. In October 1885, Arthur B. moved his families from St. Charles, to Afton, Wyoming, where they lived for one winter, 1885-1886.
The next spring, in 1886, Arthur B. Clark decided to move the two families to the lower Star Valley, in Glen, Idaho, which now is part of Freedom, Wyoming. Arthur bought land and a two-room log house, or sheepherder’s shack, that was 36 feet long and 12 feet wide, with a room on each end, and an open shed in between covered with a dirt, or sod, roof. This was north of Jackknife Creek, where plenty of wild hay could be cut and stored for winter, to feed the livestock. Helen’s oldest son, Daniel John, age 10, had his first experience stacking hay, while helping his father. Daniel John ‘stacked all of the hay that they raised that summer, which was about fifty ton.’ Helen was expecting her seventh child that summer. William Wallace Clark was born in Star Valley, on 25 August 1886.
That same summer of 1886, Arthur B. had an opportunity to take 200 head of sheep on halfshares (take care of them for a year and get half the profit) for George Heaps in the lower valley.
Mary Catrena was expecting her fifth child that autumn. Mary Catrena soon gave birth to her son, Lucius Clark, on 23 November 1886, in Star Valley. Lucius later recorded in his personal history, that, at the time of his birth, his family’s cabin was surrounded by snow about ‘three feet deep on the level’ and the ‘nearest neighbors were five miles away. Lucius was ‘born in the nighttime,’ and his ‘father couldn’t get a hundred yards from the house, because of the depth of snow, and there was nobody there, but the family.’
During the winter 1886-1887, at Freedom, when Helen’s son, Daniel John, was 11 years old, the families were “'snowed in' most of the winter and Daniel John fed 200 head of sheep and five milk cows all alone” for much of the time, while his father was traveling. Helen lived in one half of the house, and Mary lived in the other. Helen’s children at that time were: Daniel John Clark, age 11; Arthur Raymond Clark, age 8; Helen Margaret, age 6; and Frederick James, age 3 (David Milson had died in 1883, and was buried in St. Charles, Bear Lake, Idaho); and newborn, William Wallace Clark.
Mary Catrena’s children at that time were: Alma Benjamin, age 6; George Hammond, age 4; and Mary Evelyn, age 2; and newborn Lucius Clark.
Lucius later said of his mother, Mary Catrena, and father, Arthur B., that they ‘taught me the Gospel as soon as I was able to understand anything, and my early training was the very best.’ It is likely that Arthur and Mary’s son, Lucius, was named after a friend and neighbor of the Clarks, Lucius Hale.
The following spring, 1887, Arthur B. sheared the flock of sheep and sold the wool and some of the sheep in Montpelier, Idaho. With his half of the money, he bought food, clothing, and a bolt each of denim and gingham cloth, for his families. Helen and Mary made new clothes for their families: overalls for the boys and everyday dresses for the girls from the denim. The gingham was used for Sunday dresses, bonnets, and aprons for the girls and the two mothers.
That summer, on 24 July 1887, Mary Catrena’s father, Mads Peter Rasmussen, age 50, died in Vernal, Uintah, Utah.
The next year, 1888, Arthur Benjamin Clark purchased eight good milk cows. Mary Catrena’s family was moved about five miles south to the ‘Heap ranch.’ Arthur sold his share of the rest of the sheep and with the money bought materials to finish a large new house in Freedom. The family moved so many times in Star Valley, to new houses, that Mary once humorously remarked, ‘Every time the chickens saw us coming, they laid down on their backs and put up their feet to be tied.’
Helen had her son, Ernest Ross Clark, born on 12 October 1888, in Freedom, Lincoln, Wyoming.
Arthur Benjamin Clark built a two-room log home for his wife, Helen, in 1889. It was the first home in what would become the town of Freedom, Wyoming. Since it was several months before a log chapel was built, all of the church functions, such as Sunday school, Primary, Sacrament meeting, and even dances were held in this two-room log house. Arthur B. then built a three-room log house for Mary, twenty rods to the west of Helen’s house.
Arthur Benjamin Clark selected a homestead just east of the town of Freedom, and dug irrigation ditches and planted alfalfa. He took his hay and most of his cows, except one, to the upper valley for the first winter. Hay ran out, and the Clark’s cows, along with many others, died of starvation. That winter, of 1889, was known as the 'hard winter.' The one surviving cow, kept in Freedom, had to supply milk for both Clark families, with a total of eleven children. [Compiler's note: In Star Valley, the average highest temperature in the summer is 81 Degrees Fahrenheit. The average low temperature in the winter is 4.5 Degrees Fahrenheit. The average rainfall is 24 inches of rain per year. The average snowfall is 158 inches. Star Valley is located at 6,272 feet above sea level.]
The next spring, to the surprise of the family, Arthur drove home a good herd of several more cows [several calves had been born]. Mary Catrena had a son, Marion Clark, born on 19 February 1889, in Freedom, Lincoln, Wyoming.
As they became old enough, the Clark boys had jobs feeding and watering the cattle during winter, milking cows by hand, each day, cutting down trees from the canyons, helping to haul logs down to the valley, and chop logs into firewood. They also cared for and harnessed the team of horses, whenever their parents needed them. The Clark girls helped their mothers with housework, including cleaning, preparing meals, sewing and mending clothes, and caring for younger children.
A MEETINGHOUSE IN STAR VALLEY
In 1889, a log meeting house was built in Freedom, providing room for church meetings and dances, as well as a school. Helen now had her home to herself. The first teacher at the school was a 70 year man named Sylvester Lowe. The rustic log schoolhouse was equipped with simple wooden benches, (no desks) and slates were used to write on, because paper was expensive. The floor of the meeting house was hard-packed dirt, with wide wooden boards laid over the top of it. This log meeting house was used as the community school until 1901. Children would sometimes get to school by riding horses, or were brought in a buggy or wagon.
The school was a social gathering place for the families of the community, with spelling bees and foot races. Town square dances and church services were held at the meetinghouse on weekends. Arthur was no doubt the musician at many of the town dances. Moroni Hunt also played the violin for town dances.
Children in Star Valley attended school for three months, during the winter, during December, January, and February. Helen’s oldest son, Daniel John, only received 15 months of formal schooling, for his entire life. He first attended school at the age of 13. Despite this fact, Daniel John studied and read a lot, on his own. Like Arthur’s other children, he "knew the scriptures well." Daniel John became "a fluent speaker, and when called upon to speak in a meeting, even impromptu, always seemed prepared."
CHRISTMAS IN STAR VALLEY
At Christmastime, and in winter, families would ride over the deep snow in sleighs to the meetinghouse. The families would wrap in layers of quilts, with hot bricks at their feet, that had been warmed in the oven. A Christmas Eve program would be held, with local children reenacting the Nativity. Christmas Carols were sung. A Christmas dinner was held each year, and dance, with fiddle accompaniment. The first Christmas dinner in Star Valley consisted of elk and deer meat, plum pudding made from elk tallow, and dried service berries. Later Christmas dinners had turkey or chicken, cakes, pies, and plum puddings. Children would go sledding.
For a while, after arriving in Star Valley, funds were scarce, for the Clark family. Arthur and Helen Clark’s oldest child, Daniel, recalled, that all the children received, one Christmas, was a handful of dried serviceberries and two small pieces of candy.
THE CLARK FAMILY GREW
The families of Helen and Mary Catrena continued to grow. Helen had a daughter, Elizabeth Clark, born 20 October 1890, in Freedom, Lincoln, Wyoming. With continuing training, hard work, and their combined best efforts, the Clark family grew and harvested hay each year, and eventually managed to raise a herd of 200 sheep and five milk cows.
ARTHUR BENJAMIN CLARK, PRESIDING ELDER OF STAR VALLEY
Arthur was asked to serve as Presiding Elder of the LDS Church members of the lower valley, in 1890. Arthur’s wives, Helen and Mary, also served actively in the community. From about 1890 to 1893, until their was a town post office, the town’s mail was brought to and distributed from the home of Helen Margaret Ross Clark for the 20 or so families that lived in the lower valley. This guaranteed that Helen had plenty of regular visits from neighbors, and she was probably well-versed in all of the town’s latest events.
MARY CATRENA, COMPASSIONATE MOTHER
Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark, according to her son, Lucius, "was a loyal person. She took care of all the sick people in the neighborhood, in the valley, where we lived, in Star Valley. She was the only doctor we had, for many years, in the whole valley. And she attended many, many confinement cases [women in the later parts of their pregnancies, and at the time of their giving birth, and for several days afterward, while they were recovering from childbearing], and diphtheria cases, and smallpox, and everything else. If anyone was sick, they always came for mother." If Mary Catrena was called away at night, according to her son, George Hammond Clark, "she brought her own baby and tucked it in bed with George and he cared for it until she returned."
According to Mary’s son, Lucius: "We boys stayed home, and took care of ourselves– the home, the family, for sometimes days at a time, while she was away, taking care of the sick people. And, she was a great blessing to the people of that valley. Now, she never went to school, or studied anything about medicine. Just common sense methods– and, she’d read books. What she learned from books, and from others, was the only education she had, and yet, she was so successful, she seldom ever had a fatal case, in a confinement case– very rare. I think she did about as well as the average doctor does."
CHALLENGES FOR POLYGAMOUS FAMILIES
On 6 October 1890, the LDS Church held their semiannual General Conference, in Salt Lake City, Utah. The LDS Church President at that time, Wilford Woodruff, issued what was called, the ‘Manifesto’ which ended the practice of plural marriage. This ‘Manifesto’ was sustained by the members.
HARD WINTERS IN STAR VALLEY
The winters in Star Valley would always come early, last well into April, and often would be very severe. It was not uncommon for residents to run out of food and have to go out and hunt wild game to keep from starving. One time when the food was getting low, Arthur’s oldest son, Daniel, and his brothers went from Freedom, Wyoming to Montpelier, Idaho on snowshoes and carried sacks of flour back to their family.
During the ‘hard winter’ of 1890, Arthur B. had to leave the two families of 11 children all together with one cow. He took the other cows to Afton. In order to feed the animals, when their hay ran out, the pioneers had to remove the straw from their mattress ticking. Arthur returned that spring with only 6 surviving cows.
ARTHUR BENJAMIN CLARK, BISHOP OF STAR VALLEY
By the year 1891, the families of Star Valley received some new neighbors, including the Haderlies, Browers, Sandersons, Lows and Lindholms. Now, the valley had enough citizens to form an LDS Ward. The Star Valley Stake was organized 17 June 1891, with Afton as headquarters, and George Osmond as President. Arthur Benjamin Clark served as LDS Bishop of Star Valley from 1891 until 1894.
Mary Catrena had several additional children born to her, while in Freedom, Lincoln County, Wyoming: Parley Gower Clark, born on 9 October 1891; Orlan Walter Clark, born on 24 February 1894; and Leroy Beebe Clark, born on 20 May 1896. Helen had an additional son born in Freedom, during these years; Orson Clark, born on 11 October 1892.
HELEN MARGARET ROSS CLARK MOVED TO GROVER, WYOMING
In 1893, Arthur B. bought a piece of land in the upper valley, at Grover, Wyoming, near Phillip’s Canyon. Helen’s family moved there. Helen’s son, Raymond, learned to play the organ in Afton, and then became the ward organist. Arthur B. found an old organ that the ward could use, until a better one could be purchased. Arthur also saw to it that the ward purchased a dozen or more hymn books.
SOME INTERESTING ENCOUNTERS WITH INDIANS
The settlers of Star Valley soon discovered that groups of Shoshone Indians were regular visitors to the area, during warm weather. At the time the Clarks were living in Star Valley, bands of 20 to 30 Indians from Fort Hall, Idaho, rode and drove nearly 100 ponies, and passed through Freedom early each summer, traveling north, on their way to the hunting grounds of Wyoming. They returned to the area of Star Valley, in late summer, going back to Fort Hall.
Being curious about the newcomers, sometimes Indians would press their faces up to the windows of the settler’s cabins, and ask for food. Sometimes this would startle or frighten the women and children inside, but nothing serious ever happened. Milk, bread, or any other food was given to them to get them to leave.
Arthur and Helen’s son, Frederick James Clark, told of two incidents with the Indians, that occurred during his boyhood:
'At one time, at Mary Catrena’s house, four or five middle-aged and one or two thirty-year-old Indians came up on their horses, and asked for "biscuit!" Mary gave some fresh bread to three or four of them and went back to her cabin for more. She only had a hard crust left in the cabin, and she gave it to a proud looking young man of about 30 years. He looked it over and squeezed it, then with a laugh he tossed it out in the yard. This riled one of the older Indians, who went over and scolded the young man, who defiantly laughed it off. The old fellow took the young man’s hand and shook it. We boys felt that this meant punishment.'
On another occasion, Frederick James Clark recalled: “Our hand-turned grind stone stood at the end of Helen’s house. One summer when the Indians came, a squaw (Indian woman) noticed the grind stone and brought her hatchet to it, to be sharpened. I was quite near and she motioned to me to turn the stone for her. I felt quite happy to do so. However, in a few moments here came another Indian woman with her hatchet, then another, and another until four came. Being as all couldn’t grind at once I stayed and turned for an hour it seemed. I was afraid to leave. I learned a lesson that day, and when another band of Indians came I was not to be found anywhere near the grindstone.”
Helen told of an older Indian who came to her asking for advice. He asked if she was the Bishop’s squaw. She said, “Yes.” “Well,” he said, “You no tell lies then.” He then told her his problem.
Over time, the Star Valley settlers became well-acquainted with many of the Indians, and knew them on a first-name basis. Some became good friends.
LIFE IN EARLY STAR VALLEY, WYOMING
HOMES IN STAR VALLEY
A description of early pioneer life in Star Valley, given by those who grew up there, will give some idea of the lifestyle that Mary Catrena lived, with her family, from 1886, until 1895.
The first settlers of Star Valley built simple homes. Logs were cut from nearby trees, cut to uniform lengths, notched on each end, and stacked to make walls. Poles were placed over the walls. Willow branches were placed over the poles, then long cut grass and dirt was piled on top. Clay from the ground was made into mud for chinking and sealing, or insulating, the spaces and cracks between the stacked log walls. The clay was mixed with sand and water, to a thick mud consistency. The clay was also used to insulate storage boxes that were buried in the ground near a spring, or placed in a cold stream to store foods like butter, cheese, milk, and meats. One wall would contain a rock fireplace, which served for cooking, heating, and lighting the home. The floors were hard, packed, dirt. After enough rags were saved, these were cut into long strips, braided and sewn together to make rag rugs, to cover the dirt floors. Under the simple rag rugs, straw was spread, to cushion and insulate the floor.
A small outhouse was built near a settler’s barn, usually installed with a bench, with two holes cut out. Mail-order store catalogs, such as Sears Roebuck and Montgomery Ward, were the only sources of toilet paper. All shoes and much clothing was ordered from the mail-order catalogs, as well.
FOOD IN STAR VALLEY
At first, wild fruit was gathered, including: wild currants, gooseberries, service berries and choke cherries. Harder to find were wild strawberries, grapes and huckleberries. The wild fruit was dried for winter use. Garden produce was stored in dirt pits. This included Potatoes, carrots, onions, and apples. Some people stored carrots in boxes full of sand. Sliced apples, plums, and other fruits were dried, after newly planted fruit trees had grown enough to produce fruit. This fruit was dried in mesh or cheese cloth bags and hung on clothes lines. After being dried, the fruit was stored in attics, where they could stay dry and warm.
According to the recollections of Arthur and Helen’s oldest son, Daniel John, during the first ten years the Clark family lived in Star Valley, from 1885-1895, there were no fences or streets. Hunters could find bear, elk, or deer in an hour or two. Wild geese, ducks, and sage hens were all plentiful. It was said that wild ducks gathered in such large flocks on ponds or above dams that a hunter could kill three to twelve birds with a single shot from a double barreled shotgun.
Deer, elk, fish and beavers were occasionally hunted, as needed, for food, until herds of sheep and cows became well-established. The fat from butchered deer, elk or sheep was used in many ways. Lights were made from tallow, or, rendered (cooked) animal fat, which, when liquefied, was molded into candles, into which was inserted a rag wick. Beavers, muskrats, and foxes were trapped, and the furs sold. Farmers also raised flocks of chickens, and a few pigs.
Pigs were butchered in the fall. These were made into hams, bacon, and jerky. The pig’s head was made into head cheese, and the pig’s feet were pickled. Hams were cooked and dried in a small building, no larger than five feet square. They were hung from the ceiling, and a small smoldering fire was kept burning under the meats for days, until the meat had dried out sufficiently, to preserve it. The hams were stored in grain bins, to keep them cool and to keep off the flies. Eggs were also stored in grain bins.
After butchering a pig, there was a lot of fat left over (and pig skin). First, dirt and hair was cut from the fat. A large pot was filled three-quarters full with the chunks of fat, and heated over a fire or stove. This was stirred occasionally. When the fat has cooked until the white strips were shriveled up, the lard was cooled for about 30 minutes, and then poured into containers, through a piece of cloth, to strain it. The clear, rendered, fat was known as ‘lard’ (shortening) and was used in baking pies, cookies, or biscuits. It could also be used to make homemade soap. Lard needed to be stored in a cool place, to keep it from going rancid.
The bits and pieces that were strained out from the lard were known as ‘cracklings.’ These were baked in a pan for an hour or so, until they crumbled easily and were dark brown in color. Soap was made from the 'cracklings' left from rendering fat from pigs, sheep, and beef. This was weighed and mixed with lye and water. Lye was made by pouring 2 to 3 gallons of rain water over ashes, in a wooden barrel, with a hole drilled near the bottom, and a cork inserted. Palm sized, clean river rocks were piled to six inches deep in the bottom of the barrel. Then, the barrel was filled with cooled ashes, and rainwater poured over the top. This was left to soak for a week, and then tested, by throwing a whole, raw egg into the barrel. If it floated, the lye was ready. The lye was then drained into a crock with a tight-fitting lid, and place somewhere out of the reach of children, in a cool, dark place.
HOMEMADE SOAP, CLEANING AND LAUNDRY IN STAR VALLEY
The homemade soap made from lard and lye was used for all cleaning purposes, bathing, and laundry. Cleaning was a very hard task. Because there was no plumbing, and all water used in a household had to be hauled in buckets and barrels from a nearby creek or well, the whole family usually only bathed once a week, on Saturday night. Babies and small children in diapers would be cleaned more often, as needed. The large metal washtub was set up next to the fireplace or stove, for warmth, and filled with water, heated from the stove. Each member of the family would take turns bathing, starting with the youngest, and progressing to the oldest.
Laundry was washed once a week, as well. The large metal washtub was filled with warm water, and the homemade soap was shaved into flakes in the water. The clothes were scrubbed on a scrub board, and then, if possible, boiled in fresh water and more soap, rinsed twice, and hung up to dry, on a bush, tree branch, or clothesline. The lye from the homemade soap was said to make the clothes very white.
MEN'S WORK IN STAR VALLEY
The men of the settlement cut roads through the trees into the canyon, in order to be able to harvest logs, for firewood and building purposes. Wood was harvested each fall, and firewood cut into pieces and stacked and stored for winter.
The climate of Star Valley was best suited to raising herds of cows or sheep. Most Star Valley farmers were dairy farmers. The farmers made butter at home, and then transported it by wagon outside the valley, to sell. Male livestock was sold in the towns of Soda Springs, Montpelier, or Idaho Falls. The local market took butter and cheese in trade for groceries, when money was scarce.
Hay was grown for the livestock. This would be mowed down in the fall, left to dry in the field, piled high onto a hay wagon, and then piled into barns, to feed livestock in the winter.
The sons of Arthur Benjamin Clark worked in the hay field and did other chores. Arthur’s oldest son, Daniel John, was always asked to stack the hay because he was strong and tall and always built a straight stack. He was often called the 'hay stacker.' When he was about 16, his father, Arthur Benjamin Clark, gave him one dollar. It was the first money he had ever had. Daniel John once worked for a man for three days cleaning out a corral and the pay he received was a hen and several baby chicks. He usually earned between 50 cents and a dollar a day when working on a farm as a hired hand.
CROPS IN STAR VALLEY
As soon as spring arrived, the settlers were busy planting crops and gardens. Wheat was the main crop. Grain grown in early Freedom was harvested by scythe. Afterwards, it was gathered up, and laid on a hard surface of dry ground, and a team of horses was led back and forth over the bundles of grain, until all of the grain had fallen onto the ground. The straw was lifted off, and the grain kernels gathered up. Most farmers grew their own wheat. The grain was harvested and taken to Montpelier and ground into flour, or cracked wheat cereal there.
STORING FOOD IN STAR VALLEY
Doctors were scarce, in those days. Herbs were dried and stored for medicinal purposes.
Ice bins were kept on the north sides of houses (it being the coolest). In winter, men would cut blocks of ice from the frozen river. The ice was put in the bin, and covered with sawdust. Lemonade and ice cream were made during summer, and stored in the ice bins.
Pottery crocks were used to make Sauerkraut, as well as Jams, dill pickles and chili sauce. These were stored in a root (underground) cellar. The crocks came in sizes from one pint to five gallons. "Some of them had blue flowers painted on them." Some crocks were used to store lard, which was the result of cooking down fat from butchered pigs, in the oven, until it was a spreadable clump of grease. The grease was poured into crocks as it melted. Sausages were cooked, then preserved in lard.
CLOTHING AND BEDDING IN STAR VALLEY
Clothing was hard to come by, and difficult to make, as most of it was made by hand. Most women and girls only owned one dress. Sheep herds were raised. Wool was sheared from the sheep, carded, and spun into yarn. The yarn was knit into long stockings, caps, sweaters, and mittens. Old, faded clothes were ripped apart at the seams, turned inside out, and sewn together again. Children almost always went barefoot, in warm weather, to keep shoes from wearing out. In winter, deer and elk hides were tanned to make moccasins and coats.
Quilts were made from scraps of cloth sewn together. The lining was carded wool, stitched between the layers of fabric. Later quilts were made from 'outing’ flannel bought in Montpelier, the inside was filled with carded wool, and then the quilts were tied with string to hold the wool in place. Tanned animal hides were also used as bedding and rugs.
Straw ticks, similar to oversized pillowcases, were used for mattresses. Dry grass and straw was stuffed into the tick, and replaced once a year. Feather ticks and feather pillows were also used. The feathers were collected from ducks, geese, and even chickens.
THE RASMUSSEN FAMILY IN STAR VALLEY
After Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark married Arthur Benjamin Clark, and moved to Star Valley, in 1885, the remaining members of Mary’s family, including her widowed mother, Karen, and her younger siblings, George Henry, Annie Margaret, and Joseph Soren, all continued living in Morgan County, Utah.
Karen’s son, Joseph Soren Rasmussen, age 23, married Susannah ‘Susie’ Hughes, age 25, on 18 June 1892, in Morgan, Morgan County, Utah. Joseph and Susie eventually had 7 children, all born in Morgan. Karen’s son, George Henry Rasmussen, 26, met and married Rose Smith, 18, on 2 January 1893, at Rose’s father’s home, in Porterville, Morgan County, Utah. George Henry and his new bride lived in a small house that George Henry, now Karen’s oldest living son, had built near his mother’s, home, so he could continue to be near and help his mother. George and Rose eventually became the parents of 11 children.
After moving to Star Valley, Mary Catrena Rasmussen likely missed her family, and wished to live near them. Mary Catrena’s husband, Arthur Benjamin Clark, the LDS Bishop of the Freedom Ward in Star Valley, Wyoming, since 1891, persuaded Mary Catrena’s mother, Karen Maria Sorensen Rasmussen Cheney, then age 59, to sell her farm in Richville, and move to Star Valley, Wyoming. He also urged Mary Catrena’s brother, George Henry and his wife, Rose, to make the move, around 1893. George Henry and Rose’s first child, a son, they named George William Rasmussen (George after his father, and William after his maternal grandfather), was born on 23 August 1894, in Freedom, Uintah, Wyoming. Many families from Idaho, as well as Morgan and Richville, Utah, were moving to that valley, at that time. Mary Catrena’s brother and sister-in-law, Joseph Soren and Susie Rasmussen moved to Star Valley for awhile, and later, moved back to Morgan, Morgan, Utah.
Apparently, after arriving in Star Valley, George Henry Rasmussen was off to a rough start. He had understood that Arthur B. was going to employ him year-round, working with Arthur’s team of horses, but this did not happen. In addition, George Henry was not able to procure enough water in Star Valley to grow his crops. He found work helping neighbors to harvest their hay, in order to earn some money. Mary’s mother, Karen, was also dissatisfied with the area. She desired for Arthur to move her back to Morgan, and find her a house, which he did. George Henry found another home near the Salt River, and found work for the new Bishop of Star Valley, Osborne Lowe.
Mary Catrena’s brother, George Henry, and his wife, Rose, decided to move away from Wyoming. They moved to Iona, (later became Ammon, Bonneville,) Idaho. That autumn, Rose gave birth to their second child, Henry Benjamin Rasmussen, on 8 September 1894, in Iona.
HELEN MARGARET ROSS CLARK'S FAMILY MOVED TO GROVER, WYOMING
In 1893, Arthur B. bought a piece of land in the upper valley, at Grover, Wyoming, near Phillip’s Canyon. The family of Helen Margaret Ross Clark moved there. When Helen’s son, Daniel John Clark, was 19, he was called to serve in the Star Valley Stake Sunday school and on the Stake dance committee.
Helen gave birth to her youngest child, a daughter, Sylvia May Clark, on 9 November 1894, in Grover, Lincoln, Wyoming.
Arthur B. sent his son, Arthur Raymond Clark, to Afton, Wyoming, for two winters, to take organ lessons from Emily Call, and to attend school. Raymond learned the organ well enough to play some hymns. Arthur B. then bought a small organ for his home. “The organ had only four stops, and no variety in tone, was monotonous to listen to, but filled a great need. The entire ward depended upon this organ until the ward purchased one.”
Arthur B.’s son, Frederick James Clark, later recalled, that Helen’s children ‘had most of their schooling in Grover,’ and, “Two years after we came to Grover a new frame meeting house was built and five grades of school occupied the building, as well as all church functions.” Arthur Raymond was called as a Counselor in the Bishopric in 1900.
ARTHUR BENJAMIN CLARK'S SIBLINGS GATHERED FOR A SPECIAL EVENT
On 26 June 1895, Arthur Benjamin Clark joined his siblings for a special event. The children of Daniel and Elizabeth Gower Clark, now all married, and having families, living throughout the intermountain west, gathered together to Logan, Cache, Utah, to attend the LDS Temple.
On this special occasion, Arthur Benjamin Clark, and his brothers, Frederick William Clark, William Gower Clark, Daniel Clark Jr. (by proxy) and sisters, Ellen Victoria Clark, Rose Emeline Clark, Catherine Clark, Rebecca Angeline Clark, Sarah Annie Clark and Elizabeth Frances Clark, were sealed to their parents, Daniel Clark and Elizabeth Gower Clark, by proxy, in the Logan, Utah, Temple. (Daniel Clark had died while crossing the plains in 1864, and his wife, Elizabeth Gower Clark, had died in 1882, two years before construction on the Logan Temple was completed, and dedicated.)
TENSIONS IN STAR VALLEY IN THE SUMMER OF 1895
During the late summer of 1895, tension began to increase between the settlers living in the area of Jackson Hole, and the surrounding Native Americans, over hunting privileges. The settlers of Jackson Hole spread word that the Indians were "on the war-path" and getting ready to attack the settlers. Rumor spread as far as Blackfoot, and the telegraph sent word as far as Fort Douglas in Salt Lake Valley, about the potential attacks. The stories became embellished and exaggerated with each retelling, and fear and apprehension grew all over Star Valley.
In August 1895, the men of Star Valley were busy with harvest time. After hearing the rumors of an attack, they decided to gather in a group, and begin to stockpile ammunition. Some settlers hid their flour and valuables for safe-keeping. U.S. Soldiers from Fort Douglas began to arrive in the area, preparing a defense.
The Shoshone Indians, at that time, on their regular summer migration through the area, had traveled up the Greys River Trail to Meadow Creek. They came over the pass at the head of Strawberry Creek and down Dry Canyon, where they camped. Seeing a lot of commotion in the valley, they decided to send ahead a few scouts, to determine the cause. The settlers, hearing of the approach of the Indians, also sent out scouts. The two groups of scouts accidentally met up with each other. Mary Catrena’s brother, Joseph ‘Joe’ Soren, was one of the scouts sent by the settlers of Star Valley. Joe discovered that among the Indians were chief Jack Meeks, and John Collie, both ‘well-liked and trusted by the whites of Star Valley.’ Joe agreed to lead the Indians across and out of the valley. The other scouts went back to the settlers to inform them of the plan.
As they emerged from the canyon into the valley, the Indians came upon settler, Ben Welch. Mary Catrena’s half-sister, ‘Axie’ Cheney, was working for Ben Welch, at the time. Ben and Axie were milking cows. "As it was growing dark, Ben heard an Indian yell, and looking up, saw all the Indians coming down from the canyon. Startled, he jumped up and quickly set the buckets of milk down, spilling them. Axie hid behind a large post. Ben reached for his gun, then Joe stepped into sight, with his hands raised. Immediately the Indians came forth, surrounding Joe, with hands raised. There was no shooting and eventually Joe, with the assistance of others, were able to help the Indians leave the valley in peace."
MARY CATRENA'S YOUNGEST SISTER, ANNIE MARGARET, GETS MARRIED
Mary Catrena’s sister, Annie Margaret Rasmussen, 27, married widower, Ambrose Welsh, 43, father of four living children by his first wife, in Coalville, Summit County, Utah, on 25 January 1897, and lived in Morgan, Morgan County, Utah. Annie and Ambrose eventually had two children. The first was born in Morgan, the second in Salt Lake City.
ARTHUR BENJAMIN CLARK, CHOIR DIRECTOR OF STAR VALLEY
According to Arthur Benjamin Clark’s son, Frederick James Clark: in 1896, Arthur Benjamin Clark was called as the Choir Director of the Freedom LDS Ward, with his son, Arthur Raymond, as organist. Arthur B. and Helen’s son, Frederick James (then 12 years old) sang alto and Arthur B. and Helen’s daughter, Helen (Nellie) sang soprano. Other members of the choir included a divorced lady, Marinda Elizabeth Griffeth McOmber, who had recently moved to Lincoln, where many of her relatives were living. Marinda had a great love of music, and joined the choir. In addition, the bass and tenor section of the choir each had about four men. Said one of Arthur’s sons, later, “Arthur was an energetic but unpretentious leader.” The choir “ learned many songs and sang them well.”
Frederick James Clark also said, "During the first 25 years of his married life,” Arthur Benjamin Clark “enjoyed and continued to contribute to the lighter side of life when time and occasion would permit. He enjoyed good clean jokes and funny stories. He knew dozens of them and could mimic any man, woman or child so that the listeners could imagine the person being mimicked. He was a good entertainer both with the violin and as a singer. In either of the Star Valleys, he was the most popular man singer from 1885 to 1900. The song of the Bear Lake Monster was the most called for in parties and dances and the most entertaining in the funny class."
MARY CATRENA RASMUSSEN CLARK'S FAMILY MOVED TO HOOPER, WEBER COUNTY, UTAH
In 1897/8, Arthur Benjamin Clark moved Mary Catrena Rasmussen with her children, to a two-room frame house in Hooper, Weber County, Utah, on 20 acres of farmland. According to their son, Lucius, Arthur B. wanted to try life in Utah. The family supported themselves by raising cattle and hay, and various crops, and Arthur thought chances might be better in Utah. This house in Hooper, was, according to Lucius Clark, surrounded by apple trees. Mary’s family raised sugar beets, watermelons, and tomatoes, and sold them in Ogden, and “made quite a bit of money there.” Lucius said that they made the same amount of money on the smaller farm in Hooper, as they did in Star Valley, on a larger farm, because that year “there was a good price for tomatoes.” The family drilled a well, and had a constant supply of flowing water, in Hooper.
While in Hooper, Mary Catrena had two additional sons born to her: Leslie Clark, on 4 July 1898, and died the same day, and Lawrence David Clark, born on 22 September 1899.
Arthur B.’s son, Lucius, recalled driving a milkwagon while living in Hooper, and swimming in the Weber River in the summertime. Mary Catrena and her children lived in Hooper for a year, and then moved back to Star Valley, Wyoming, in 1899, to a 160 acre farm, with a two-room log house. Arthur felt that Mary’s family had grown larger than the 20 acre farm in Hooper could support. Helen’s family had continued to live in Grover, Wyoming, during this time.
THE CLARKS ALL COME TOGETHER
At this point, Arthur B. wanted to move his two families closer together. In 1899, Arthur bought two one-quarter sections of meadow land northwest of Freedom, the George Heap farm, and the adjoining William Heap farm. He moved Helen from Grover to the William Heap home, and Mary from Hooper, Utah to a two-room log house on the George Heap farm. The combined ranch made up 160 acres. Helen’s family consisted of nine living children, the oldest 23, the youngest, 5. Mary Catrena’s family had nine children, at that time, as well, ranging from 19 to newborn.
At Star Valley, Lucius, 13, and a brother helped build a large frame room onto his mother’s log cabin in Star Valley. Lucius and his brothers that were old enough, Alma Benjamin, 19; George Hammond, age 17; Marion, age 10; also dug a well, hauled logs to the saw mill, hauled hay, fed cattle, milked cows, built a barn, and Lucius still found the time to learn some tricks, including walking on his hands.
The boys of the two families went to work, and built a barn on each farm. Each family had about eight cows, and they jointly accumulated farming and hay machinery, including two mowing machines, a side delivery rake, a hay loader, four wagons and hayracks, and a net for unloading hay from the wagons. The net lifted one half a load of hay off the wagon at a time. A team of horses, hitched to a rope, threaded through a pulley lifted high above the ground, then along a track to where they wanted it dumped on the haystack.
The ten older boys of the two families joined together in a haying crew, with regular assignments as follows: Alma and Wallace ran the mowers, George or Lucius ran the side delivery rake to put the hay into windrows, Raymond and Frederick operated the hay loader, and Daniel was the stacker on the haystack. The smaller boys, Ernest, Marion, and Parley, drove the teams and loaded and unloaded the wagons. It took ten boys, young and older, to work efficiently. Some days they hauled and stacked 30 tons of hay.
When the haying was finished there were two huge, 100 foot long stacks on Helen’s 160 acres, and nearly three stacks on Mary’s 140 acres. For the three years they lived there, the boys put up 500 tons of hay on the two places. With the boys fully trained to run the farms, Arthur B. continued his work as a traveling dentist.
Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark gave birth to another son, Nephi Alfred Clark, on 29 November 1901, Freedom, Lincoln, Wyoming.
Arthur Benjamin Clark married Marinda Elizabeth Griffeth McOmber in March 1902, in Star Valley, Wyoming.
THE CLARK CHILDREN BEGIN TO MARRY, AND LEAVE ON MISSIONS
With their combined efforts, Helen’s and Mary’s sons worked the Clark farm, and had the whole ranch paid off in about ‘six or seven years.’ During these years in Freedom, Arthur B.’s family was also active in the community, and the local LDS Ward. Ernest Ross Clark began teaching Primary (children’s classes) in the Freedom LDS Ward, at age 14. Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark served as the Relief Society President of the Freedom, Lincoln, Wyoming, LDS Ward from September 1900-October 1906.
Now, Arthur’s sons were beginning to leave home. Arthur and Mary’s son, George Hammond Clark, served an LDS Mission to the Southern United States, returning in 1902. Arthur Benjamin and Helen Margaret Ross Clark’s oldest son, Daniel John Clark, married Mary Amanda Hokanson on June 12, 1901. The other Clark children married in quick succession: (Helen’s children) Arthur Raymond, age 22, to Ida Emma Weber in 1901; Helen Margaret, age 22, to Warren Longhurst, in 1903 (later divorced and remarried); and Frederick James Clark, age 19, in 1903. (Mary Catrena’s child) Alma Benjamin Clark, in 1902, to Larinda Merissa Parker.
After George Hammond Clark returned from his LDS Mission, he found a job hauling freight between Star Valley and stores in outlying towns. George began courting a young lady, named Louise Parker, in Bennington.
THE CLARKS MOVE TO MEXICO
In 1903 a major adventure was undertaken in Arthur’s family. It became known that plural marriages could be performed, notwithstanding the Manifesto issued by LDS President Wilford Woodruff in 1890, in which he promised to obey the law of the land, and advised the members of the church to do likewise. However, ‘the land’ referred to was interpreted to mean the United States, and it was held by some that members who considered the law of plural, or celestial marriage, of such importance might practice it by going to Mexico or Canada, where it was not prohibited.
President Anthony Woodward Ivins of the Juarez Mexico Stake was performing such marriages. President Ivins had been living in Mexico since 1885, and had established about 3500 Saints in Mexico, in eight Colonies, or Wards. Dublan, Chihuahua was the largest, with 1200 residents. In 1903, President Joseph F. Smith sent word to President Ivins, that his authority to perform plural marriages would be revoked in the near future, because of the insistence of the United States Government that in order for the [LDS] church to keep faith with the Government, the church could not allow some of its members to practice this order of marriage in other countries.
Three men, including Byron Harvey Allred Jr., Warren Longhurst, and Arthur Benjamin Clark decided to move to Mexico. Arthur took his wife, Helen, and her unmarried children to Dublan, Mexico in 1903. Arthur and Helen’s oldest son, Daniel John Clark, brought his wife, Mary Amanda Hokanson Clark, and two young children to Mexico, as well. Marinda Griffiths McOmber, of Grover, Wyoming, and Ethel Adolphia Shirley of Logan, Utah, also went to Mexico, and became plural wives to Arthur. Arthur married Marinda McOmber in March 1903 and Adolphia Shirley in September 1903. President Anthony W. Ivins performed the marriages. (Later, after returning to America, Arthur Benjamin Clark was sealed to Marinda, and her two children, Calvin Delos McOmber, and ‘Minnie’ in the Logan LDS Temple.)
The climate of Mexico could not be more starkly different than the climate of Star Valley, Wyoming.
“Colonia Dublan,” where Arthur Benjamin Clark arrived, “was the largest of the Mormon Mexican colonies and had been settled since 1888. The country was beautiful, semitropical, fertile, with an abundance of water. President Diaz had been president for 30 years in Mexico and had welcomed the Mormons to the colonies. The first colony, Colonia Diaz, was established in 1885 in the state of Chihuahua. Dublan was settled next and later Colonia Garcia, Colonia Chuichupa, and finally Colonia Pacheco, all in the Sierra Madre. Later, Juarez boasted an academy which all eight colonies sent their high school students.”
The nearby settlement of Colonia Juarez had soil perfect for brick making, and many ‘lovely brick homes’ and the Juarez Academy were built there. On 7 May 1887, an earthquake in the area had opened a water supply in the Piedras Verdes, bringing ample water to Juarez. By 1894, Juarez possessed fine brick residences, thrifty orchards, and beautiful flower gardens. The land was fertile for fruit, but limited in farming. The area was a thriving community by the time the Clark family arrived. Juarez contained a cannery, two shoe shops, a grist mill and tanner, a saw mill, a cheese factory, and a cooperative store.
The Clarks bought a farm in Guadalupe, where they lived in 1903. They found that the land was perfect for growing corn, wheat and alfalfa, and fruits and vegetables. The country was semitropical, fertile, and had an abundance of water. What a sharp contrast to their farm in Freedom, Wyoming, with its’ six foot deep snow and long winters!
Arthur and Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark’s third child, daughter Mary Evelyn Clark, age 18, married Byron Harvey Allred Jr., on 15 July 1903, in Colonia Dublan, Chihuahua, Mexico. Mary Evelyn and Byron eventually left Mexico, and settled in Wyoming and Idaho, and Salt Lake City, Utah. They raised 10 children. Byron Harvey Allred later served as a member of the Wyoming Senate and Idaho House of Representatives.
THE END OF POLYGAMY IN THE LDS CHURCH
On the 5 April 1904, LDS President Joseph F. Smith issued the “Second Manifesto.” This stated that the LDS Church was opposed to plural marriage and set down the principle that those entering into or solemnizing plural marriages would be excommunicated from the church. This ended the practice of plural marriage anywhere within the LDS Church.
CHALLENGES FOR THE CLARKS
Arthur B. and Helen’s daughter, Sylvia May Clark, age 9, died in Mexico, on 29 April 1904. A few months later, Arthur B. and Ethel Adolpha Shirley had their first child, Jonathan Shirley Clark, born on 7 June 1904, in Colonia Dublan, Mexico.
Arthur’s second wife, Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark, and her unmarried children joined the other Clarks in Mexico in 1905. First, though, Mary and Arthur B.’s son, George Hammond, made a trip to Logan, Cache, Utah, to marry his wife, Louise Parker, in the LDS Temple, there. They were accompanied by Lucius Clark, as chaperone. Lucius received his endowments at that time. George and Louise eventually had 9 children together. After Louise’s death, George married Effie M. Tanner Polatis, on 21 July 1964, in Idaho Falls, Bonneville, Idaho. George eventually died in Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho.
In Colonia Dublan, Mexico, Mary Catrena Rasmussen lived in a four-room adobe house on a farm, with her children. All of Arthur’s children eventually made the trip to Mexico except Arthur Raymond Clark, who remained in Wyoming. Some of the families stayed for only a short time, others remained until the general exodus in 1912. In 1905, some of Mary Catrena’s family came down with Typhoid Fever, including Lucius Clark. They were ill for several weeks.
While in Colonia Dublan, Ethel Clark had a second child, Wilda Clark, born 11 May 1906.
A number of births happened in the family of Mary Catrena and her married children, while in Dublan. Arthur B. and Mary Catrena’s married daughter, Mary Evelyn Clark, and her husband Byron Harvey Allred Jr., had their first three children born in Dublan: Louis, b. 15 December 1904; and twins, Rulon and Rhea, b. 29 March 1906. Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark had a daughter, Aurelia ‘Relia’ Clark, born to her, on 9 October 1906. Relia was the first daughter that Mary Catrena had had in quite some time, her last eight children being all boys. Mary Catrena’s married son, Alma Benjamin Clark, and his wife Larinda, had their first child, a son, born in Dublan, Merlin Alma Clark, on 23 February 1907. Arthur and Mary Catrena’s married son, George Hammond Clark, and his wife, Louise, had their first child, a daughter, Hulda Louise Clark, born in Dublan, on 19 May 1907.
In March 1907 Arthur and others considered moving to the west coast of Mexico, south of Sonora. However, LDS Church Authorities of the Juarez Stake advised against such a move, and the idea was abandoned.
MARY CATRENA RASMUSSEN CLARK AND ETHEL ADOLPHA SHIRLEY CLARK MOVE TO MORELOS
Later in 1907, Arthur B. made a business deal with a man from Morelos, whom he had met while working as a traveling dentist. The man owned a ranch in Morelos, and was willing to trade his ranch for the Clark ranch in Dublan. As a result, Arthur B. moved two of his wives, Mary Catrena and Ethel, and their children, to Morelos, Mexico, about 200 miles west of Dublan.
The trip to Morelos was very difficult. They had to travel over a mountain range, and the roads were poor, or nonexistent. The agreement was that Arthur B. would trade everything on his ranch for the ranch at Morelos, including the home’s furnishings. It was believed that the two ranches were of equal quality. Upon arriving in Morelos, however, this was found to not be true. Mary later told relatives, that seeing her home in Morelos was almost more than she could bear, and she sat down and cried.
Morelos had advantages and disadvantages. It was at a much lower altitude, where the climate was mild, even delightful, about eight months of the fall, winter and spring. There was plenty of water in either of two rivers there, but the people were unable to make permanent dams to keep water in the canals. Heavy rains that occasionally came to the area, would bring down a flood, and wash all temporary dams away. The land was rich and easily worked, and most of the colonists in Morelos were enthusiastic in the hope of future success.
Arthur B. and Mary’s son, Lucius Clark, recalled working at repairing and building fences, in Morelos. Lucius also was hired to teach the fifth and sixth grades at the local Morelos school. He also broke his arm, while playing baseball, and the arm was splinted by a neighbor. Lucius was elected Justice of the Peace, and was often called upon to act as an interpreter for the local Mexican government leader.
Arthur B. and Helen’s son, Daniel John Clark, and his wife Mary Amanda, had their third child, a daughter, Luannie Clark, born on 21 September 1908, in Dublan, Mexico.
Ethel Clark had her fourth child, Bertha Clark, born on 28 December 1909, in Morelos, Sonora, Mexico.
Arthur B. and Helen’s son, Daniel John and his wife, Mary Amanda, had their third child, a son, they named Arthur, after his grandfather, born on 12 September 1908, in Dublan, Mexico.
While in Mexico, Arthur B. and Mary Catrena’s son, Lucius Clark, obtained work from Gaskell Romney, at the Union Mercantile Lumber Yard. Lucius also dug wells, and a canal. Two of Arthur’s sons, Lucius Clark and Ernest Ross Clark became students at the Juarez Academy, in Colonia Juarez, in 1908.
THE CLARKS BEGIN TO MOVE BACK TO AMERICA
In April 1908, George Hammond Clark and his wife, Louise Parker Clark, moved from Mexico to Blackfoot, Idaho. In about 1909, most of the family of Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark soon followed George to Blackfoot, Idaho.
After the Clarks had lived in Mexico for about ten years, a group of rebels overthrew the Mexican President, Diaz, and began a revolution. Anarchy soon followed, July 1912. Civil war broke out. There were some rumors spread that the Mexican rebels planned to kill the Mormon men, and take their wives and daughters. The women and children were loaded onto railroad cars, and moved to El Paso, Texas, USA, where they lived as refugees, in the lumber yards, until they could contact relatives living elsewhere in America. The Mormon men stayed behind to guard the properties, hoping things would soon calm. They soon had to leave, as well. Fourteen colonists had been killed.
MEMBERS OF THE CLARK FAMILY SPREAD ALL OVER THE INTERMOUNTAIN WEST
After Mexico, Arthur’s wife, Helen Margaret Ross Clark, and an unmarried son, Orson, moved to Logan, Utah, to a small house near the LDS Temple. Arthur B.’s sons Lucius and Ernest Clark remained behind in Mexico, to complete their education at the Juarez Academy. Ethel Clark and her children moved to Hyde Park, Utah.
On 18 December 1911, Arthur and Mary Catrena’s son, Lucius Clark, married Miriam Adelia Carling, in Colonia Garcia, Chihuahua, Mexico. Adelia’s parents were still living in Garcia at that time. Both Lucius and Miriam were students at the Juarez Academy. After the graduation of Lucius, Adelia, and Ernest, from the Academy, in Spring 1912, Lucius had contracted to be a schoolteacher, in Morelos. However, their plans were halted when revolutionaries began riding through the countryside, looting the settlers, and randomly shooting at their farms.
In 1912, the remaining Clarks, including Lucius and his wife, Miriam, and Ernest Ross Clark, left Mexico. All Americans in Mexico were advised to evacuate to El Paso, Texas.
LIFE IN BLACKFOOT, IDAHO
At that time, Arthur Benjamin Clark lived in Blackfoot, Idaho, with his wife, Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark, and joined the Blackfoot LDS Ward. Arthur B. continued working as a traveling dentist, practicing throughout Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. His married children scattered around Wyoming, Utah and Idaho. After leaving Mexico, Arthur B.’s son, Lucius Clark, and his new bride, Adelia,. stayed for a few months with Arthur B. and Mary Catrena, until they could save up some money and find their own home. That autumn, on 2 October 1912, Mary Catrena accompanied Lucius and Adelia to the Logan LDS Temple, so they could be sealed. Soon after, on 6 November 1912, the first child of Lucius and Adelia, Elmer Lucius Clark, was born in Blackfoot, Idaho. After a year, of working and saving money, Lucius and Adelia moved to Preston, Idaho, where he obtained a job teaching school. While in Preston, Adelia’s sister, Sylvia Ann Carling, came to stay with her and Lucius, to attend school. While there, Sylvia Carling met Mary Catrena’s son, Ernest Ross Clark, and they were married.
After returning from Mexico, Daniel John and Rose Clark and their children stayed in Blackfoot, Idaho for about six months and then returned to Freedom in Star Valley, Wyoming, where they continued to live and raise their family.
Arthur B. continued to travel and work as a dentist, and visited his wives and children, and grandchildren when he was near their homes on business. Arthur Benjamin Clark’s granddaughter, Rhoda Clark Humpherys, the daughter ofArthur’s oldest son, Daniel John Clark, and his wife, Mary Amanda Hokanson Clark, said of her grandfather Arthur B.:
“My grandfather was a big man, with a white beard, he was quite jovial and talkative. He always brought something for all of us kids when he came to see us, a package of candy or popcorn or give us a nickel. We always looked forward to having him come.”
MARY CATRENA'S YOUNGEST DAUGHTER, RELIA, DIED IN AN ACCIDENT
During a visit to Star Valley, Wyoming, in 1911, to visit relatives and friends, Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark, was riding in a horsedrawn buggy, accompanied by family members, including her youngest daughter, Relia, then five years old. Apparently, the buggy hit a hole or a large tree branch or rock, and jolted, throwing the young girl from the buggy. The fall to the ground left the little girl with internal injuries, from which she never recovered, dying a few hours later. The youngest child of Arthur B. and Mary Catrena, Relia Clark, died on 6 June 1911, in Freedom, and was buried there. A funeral was held in the Freedom LDS Ward.
Aurelia’s death was a sore trial for Mary. Aurelia was a bright, wonderful child who adored her mother. Once when the family was preparing to embark on another journey, Aurelia told her mother that she did not wish to go because she didn’t think she would return. Aurelia went anyway, and at that time, the accident occurred that caused her to lose her life. According to Mary Catrena’s son, Lucius, Mary grieved so much after this accident, that she adopted another little girl, Grace Ana Clark.
The obituary printed in the newspaper, in Star Valley at that time, read:
FREEDOM- Two Deaths, Baby Falls From Buggy
A very sad accident happened on the road to Grays Lake last week when Relia the beautiful 5 year old child of Sister Mary Clark "Aunt Mary" as we affectionately call her, was thrown from the buggy and so badly injured that she lived only an hour and a half afterward. Aunt Mary and part of her family were coming to Freedom on a visit to her relatives and friends, after an absence of five years; and were expecting a pleasant time when sorrow so suddenly came. The family have the sympathy of the entire community in their sad bereavement. They came on to Freedom where the funeral and burial were held and Dr. A.B. Clark, the father of the child, and others of the family came in to attend. Mrs. Ed Palmer of Thayne, officiated at the organ, and also sang beautifully two selections. The speakers were, Counselor Ole Hokanson, W.E. Jenkins and Eugene Weber, and they gave such comfort as words can give to the bereaved. The house was tastefully decorated, and the casket was literally covered with flowers. Monday the Clark family left via Afton for Blackfoot.
MARINDA ELIZABETH GRIFFETH CLARK
Arthur Benjamin Clark’s third wife, Marinda Elizabeth Griffeth Clark, suffered from rheumatism (arthritis) the last years of her life. She passed away on 29 June 1916, at the age of 59, in Hyde Park, Cache County, Utah. She was buried in the Hyde Park Cemetery, Hyde Park, Cache County, Utah.
A SAD TIME FOR MARY CATRENA RASMUSSEN CLARK
One day in July, 1917, Arthur Benjamin Clark sent word to his sons, Daniel John and Raymond, to come to Frederick’s house in Freedom, Wyoming, for a visit. Fred reports this visit as follows:
"We had not been together many minutes when father said firmly, ‘Boys, I am not coming to Star Valley any more.’ We three boys felt sudden depression. He said he wished all his boys would get out of Star Valley. After a few moments of silence, he said, ‘Let's sing my song.’ We at once recalled the song, 'Ye Children of our God, Ye Saints of Latter Days, Surround the Table of the Lord and Join to Sing His Praise'. Ray sat down at the organ and played the first phrase, then we sang the first verse. At the end of it, we all stopped. The depression deepened and we could sing no more."
Arthur and his sons Daniel and Ray decided to check his one-seated Ford automobile, as it had been giving him some trouble. When they looked, they found that someone had cut a gash in the tire and punctured the inner tube. The rest of the afternoon was spent in repairing the tire. Arthur continued his trip the next day, toward Blackfoot. When he began the ascent out of Cunard Valley, 35 northwest of Freedom, the car’s engine began overheating, and the car began to roll backwards.
Some time later, a woman and her husband were traveling on the same road, and heard moaning and a call for help. Her husband found Arthur B. Clark, helpless and injured. Arthur was carried to the nearest ranch house. Mary Catrena was notified, and hurried to see Arthur. The family members in Star Valley did not hear of the accident (no telephones) until Monday evening. Daniel John, Raymond, and Fred arrived to find Mary and George Henry already with Arthur B., who was in severe pain. Nine days after the accident, arrangements were made to transport Arthur B. to his home in Blackfoot. Arthur died as his sons were carrying him into his home upon his arrival.
At the time of his death, Arthur had been approved by the First Presidency of the LDS Church to be sustained at the next Stake Conference to be the Patriarch of the Blackfoot Stake. However, Arthur Benjamin Clark never lived to serve in that calling. He died at the age of 63, on 26 July 1917, and was buried in the Blackfoot Cemetery. ‘He was a very loved and honored man by his children, his step children, and his posterity.’
Interestingly, several of Arthur Benjamin Clark’s sons later served as Patriarchs in their own Stakes: (son of Helen Margaret Ross Clark) Arthur Raymond Clark, (son of Marinda Elizabeth Griffeth McOmber Clark) Calvin D. McOmber, and (son of Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark) George Hammond Clark; and a grandson, Calvin D. McOmber Jr., also served as a Patriarch.
MARY CATRENA'S LIFE, AFTER ARTHUR'S DEATH
After her husband’s death, Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark continued to live in Blackfoot, Idaho, and enjoyed visiting with her children and grandchildren in the area.
According to Mary Catrena’s children, Her method of correction consisted of the beliefs that you never strike a child in anger and you only tell them once. She also said, “If you threaten or promise, you had better follow through. Then the child knows that he can trust you.” All of her children loved and obeyed her and she was never heard to raise her voice in anger. She would not permit the children to quarrel either. If they had been in a disagreement for some time, she would say, quoting Brigham Young: “That’s enough. Do not permit your children to quarrel unless they are of the devil.” Mary was also a gifted manager of time. She used it with great wisdom and discretion. Bedtime stories were taken from the Book of Mormon or the Bible. Mary also served as Young Women’s President in one of her wards.
One amusing incident with Mary’s grandchildren happened in about 1926. Mary Catrena’s son, Lucius, and his wife, Adelia, and their children were traveling through Blackfoot, on their way to Logan, Utah, where Lucius would attend summer school at Utah Agricultural College. The children insisted that they stop and visit their beloved ‘Grandma Clark’ in Blackfoot. As it turned out, at that time, Mary Catrena was living with Lucius’ brother, George, and the Clarks had Scarlet Fever, and the house was under quarantine. The children wanted to see their grandmother so badly, they went out and visited across a beet field, which they felt would be safe. After arriving in Logan, however, Lucius’ daughter, Afton, came down with Scarlet Fever, and their home there had to be quarantined.
Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark died at the age of 74, on 5 December 1938, in Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho. Mary was the wife of Arthur Benjamin Clark, and mother of 13 children. Two of her children, Leslie Clark, and Relia Clark, preceded her in death. She was survived by a host of children and grandchildren. Mary Catrena Rasmussen Clark was buried on 8 December 1938, in Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho, beside the grave of her husband.
--[Excerpts from the record of "George Henry Rasmussen and Rose Smith Rasmussen" compiled and edited by Kenneth L. Rasmussen, January 1991.] pp. 3-9, 12-13, 45
[This comes from the history of George Henry Rasmussen, brother of Mary Catrina Rasmussen. George Henry Rasmussen and Mary Catrena Rasmussen were the children of Mads Peter Rasmussen and Karen Marie Sorensen Rasmussen. This story is included, to give some idea of the home and family that Mary Catrina grew up in. This perspective of the story comes from the descendants of George Henry Rasmussen.]
--Humpherys, compiled by Larry W Edited & Published by Kent C Humpherys. The Willard Davis Humpherys and Rhoda Clark Family History. August 2005. Kent C. Humpherys, August 2005. [pp. B-3 through B-5,
--Book: The History of the Community and Families of Freedom Wyoming & Idaho, pp. 11, 12, 15, 45, 46, 49, 89, 92-95, 115, 116, 183, 214, and 413.
--Compiled by Elmo Carling Whetten and Viva Cluff Whetten, John Henry Carling, Mary Elizabeth Lovell: Their Family and Ancestors (unknown (Utah?): unknown, 2002), 276, 278-281, 283.
--Compiled by Delsa D. Skinner Ruth H. Petersen, Martha V. McKim, A Bend in the River: The History of Thayne Wyoming, 2nd Printing (Star Valley, Wyoming: Afton Thrifty Print, 1995), 5; scanned image, 8 pages total in record, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, new.familysearch.org (: accessed ; Arthur Benjamin Clark, Presiding Elder, Bishop of Star Valley.
--Ruth McOmber Pratt, A Tribute to Calvin Delos McOmber, Sr. & Achsah Stout McOmber: The Patriarch of our Family & Beloved wife, mother, grandmother, and great grandmother, 25 May 1995 (Ruth McOmber Pratt, 25 May 1995), 53, 60, 61, 64, 70, 71, 72, 86, 87; pdf, scanned image, lds.org, new.familysearch.org, newfamilytree book search, ExLibrisRosetta (https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE60227&from=fhd : accessed ; Arthur Benjamin Clark, married Marinda E. Griffith McOmber.
--Account of the conversion of Wilford Woodruff, from the manual,
Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Wilford Woodruff, 2011, 35-45.
3. Deseret Evening News, March 1, 1897, 1.
4. “The Rights of the Priesthood,” Deseret Weekly, March 17, 1894, 381.
History of Richville, Morgan County, Utah
A Brief History of Morgan County
--Excerpts from History of Arthur Benjamin Clark by his and Helen Margaret Ross Clark’s son, Frederick J. Clark, 3 pages long.
--Book: History of George Hammond Clark and his wife, Louise Parker Clark, 4 pages long.
--Book: Arthur Benjamin Clark, by Neva Humpherys with Arthur Benjamin Clark’s great-granddaughters: Lois Roberts, Nadean Cassel, and Jarene Fluckiger, published by Star Valley Historical Society, 10 pages long.
--Matthews, compiled by Edith Parker Haddock and Dorothy Hardy. History of Bear Lake Pioneers. 2nd Edition 1974. Bear Lake County, Idaho: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1968. Scanned image. www.new.familysearch.org. ExLibrisRosetta. P. 131.